Eurema

Three-spot grass yellow Eurema blanda, copyright Rison Thumboor.

Belongs within: Pieridae.

Eurema, the grass-yellows, is a pan-tropical and -subtropical genus of small, often bright sulphur-yellow butterflies with a black margin on the upper side of the wings. Larvae most commonly feed on species of Leguminosae (Braby 2000a).

Characters (from Braby 2000a): Antennae relatively short, less than half length of costa of fore wing; third segment of labial palp oval, less than half length of second segment; hind wing with humeral vein absent; male of most species with patch of sex-scales near base of underside of fore wing.

<==Eurema Hübner 1819B00a
|--E. alitha (Felder & Felder 1862)B00a
| |--E. a. alithaB00a
| |--E. a. amplexa (Butler 1887) [=Terias amplexa]JG19
| `--E. a. novaguineensis Shirôzu & Yata 1982B00a
|--E. blanda (Boisduval 1836)B00b
| |--E. b. blandaB00b
| `--E. b. saraha (Fruhstorfer 1912)B00b
|--E. brigitta (Stoll 1780)B00a
| |--E. b. brigittaB00a
| `--E. b. australis (Wallace 1867)B00a
|--E. candida (Cramer 1780)B00a, F55 [=Terias candidaF55]
| |--E. c. candidaF55
| |--‘Terias’ c. libera Fruhstorfer 1910F55
| `--‘Terias’ c. talbotiF55
|--E. hecabe (Linnaeus 1758)B12
| |--E. h. hecabeB88
| |--E. h. phoebusB88
| `--E. h. sulphurataPP02
|--E. herla (Macleay 1826)B12
|--E. laeta (Boisduval 1836)B00a
| |--E. l. laetaB12
| `--E. l. sana (Butler 1877)B12 [incl. E. laeta lineata (Miskin 1889)B00a]
|--E. nicippeS72
|--E. puella (Boisduval 1832)B00a
| |--E. p. puellaB00a
| |--E. p. papuana (Butler 1898)B00a
| `--E. p. virgo (Wallace 1867)B00 [=Terias candida virgoF55]
`--E. smilax (Donovan 1805)B12

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[B00a] Braby, M. F. 2000a. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 1. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B00b] Braby, M. F. 2000b. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B12] Braby, M. F. 2012. The butterflies of El Questro Wilderness Park, with remarks on the taxonomy of the Kimberley fauna, Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (2): 161–175.

[F55] Franz, E. 1955. Die Typen und Typoide des Natur-Museums Senckenberg, 16). Insecta, Lepidoptera, Pieridae. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 339–367.

[JG19] James, D. J., P. T. Green, W. F. Humphreys & J. C. Z. Woinarski. 2019. Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34 (2): 55–114.

[PP02] Patrick, B., & H. Patrick. 2002. Butterflies of Fiji. Weta 24: 5–12.

[S72] Shields, O. 1972. Flower visitation records for butterflies (Lepidoptera). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48 (3): 189–203.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *