Eusarcus

Eusarcus vervloeti, copyright Adriano B. Kury.

Belongs within: Gonyleptidae.

Eusarcus is a diverse genus of gonyleptid harvestmen in South America, characterised by the presence of unpaired armature on scutal area III, and a strongly curved distalmost pair of setae on the ventral plate of the penis (Hara & Pinto-da-Rocha 2010).

Characters (from Hara & Pinto-da-Rocha 2010): Male: Dorsum: Paramedian apophyses usually present on anterior margin of scutum, located ectally to chelicera. Ocularium with several similar-sized tubercles (unarmed), or a pair of large tubercles, or a pair of spines, or a median apophysis (bifid or not). Dorsal scutum with five transversal grooves delimiting four scutal areas. Scutal area I medially divided; III usually with a median spine. Body shape pyriform, wider between groove I and grooves IV and V (close to each other). Lateral margin of dorsal scutum with an external regular row of tubercles increasing in size posteriorly, and with one to two internal, irregular rows. Posterior margin of dorsal scutum with a row of tubercles. Chelicera: Segment I with scattered tubercles; II with setae irregularly concentrated at base of fixed finger, a group of setae on apical mesal face, both fingers toothed. Pedipalpus: Trochanter inflated, with sparse tubercles dorsally; ventrally with a large prolateral tubercle bearing a seta, and with a small retrolateral tubercle; femur stretched, subcylindrical, with a prolateral subapical seta; patella smooth; tibia with variable spination, usually IiIi (prolateral and retrolateral) and tarsus idem, IIi (prolateral) and IiIi (retrolateral). Legs: Coxa I with 1 prolateral, 1 retrolateral apophysis; II with 1 prolateral apophysis, 3 retrolateral apophyses fused at base, retrolateralmost fused at apex with prolateral apophysis of coxa III; III with 1 prolateral, 1 retrolateral apophysis fused at base; IV, irregularly tuberculate, with 1 prolateral apical apophysis more developed in male than female. Coxa IV surpassing dorsal scutum in dorsal view, being visible in all its extension or visible only apically. Trochanter IV with prolateral apophyses. Femora I–II straight, III–IV sinuous, all with tubercles arranged approximately in six longitudinal rows: a prodorsal and a retrodorsal row, a proventral and a retroventral row, a prolateral and a retrolateral row. Distitarsi I–II always 3-segmented. Metatarsi III–IV with 2 ventro-apical setae. Tarsal segmentation: 5–7(3); + 6(3); 6; 6–7. Female mostly same as male, coxa IV shorter than in male (ending between grooves III and IV) and usually visible in dorsal view, surpassing dorsal scutum only apically; with prolateral apical apophysis shorter than in male. Trochanter IV unarmed on prolateral face.

<==Eusarcus Perty 1833K03 (see below for synonymy)
    |--*E. armatus Perty 1833K03 (see below for synonymy)
    |--E. aberrans Mello-Leitão 1939K03
    |--E. aduncus (Mello-Leitão 1942) [=Enantiocentron aduncum]K03
    |--E. antoninae Mello-Leitão 1936K03
    |--E. argentinus (Roewer 1913) (see below for synonymy)K03
    |--E. bifidus Roewer 1929 [=Goyazia bifida]K03
    |--E. cavernicola Hara & Pinto-da-Rocha 2010A19
    |--E. centromelos (Mello-Leitão 1935) (see below for synonymy)K03
    |--E. curvispinosus Mello-Leitão 1923K03
    |--E. doriphorus (Mello-Leitão 1932) [=*Enantiocentron doriphorus]K03
    |--E. dubius Soares 1943 [=Neopucrolia dubia]K03
    |--E. elinae Kury 2008P-GC17
    |--E. fulvus Soares & Soares 1946K03
    |--E. furcatus Roewer 1929K03
    |--E. grumani Soares 1966K03
    |--E. guimaraensi Soares 1945 [incl. E. biserratus Mello-Leitão 1945]K03
    |--E. hastatus Sørensen 1884K03
    |--E. incus Soares & Soares 1946K03
    |--E. insperatus Soares 1944K03
    |--E. maquinensis Soares 1966K03
    |--E. montis (Mello-Leitão 1936) [=Enantiocentron montis]K03
    |--E. nigrimaculatus Mello-Leitão 1924 [incl. E. minensis Mello-Leitão 1932]K03
    |--E. organensis Kury 2003 [=*Orguesia armata Roewer 1913 nec E. armatus Perty 1833 nec Pucrolia armata Sørensen 1895]K03
    |--E. oxyacanthus Koch 1839KM20
    |--E. perpusillus Mello-Leitão 1945 [=E. pusillus Mello-Leitão 1931 non Sørensen 1884]K03
    |--E. pusillus Sørensen 1884 [=*Eusarcoides pusillus]K03
    |--E. schubarti Soares & Soares 1946K03
    |--E. spinimanu Mello-Leitão 1932K03
    |--E. sulcatus (Piza 1940) [=*Goyazia sulcata]K03
    |--E. teresincola Soares & Soares 1946K03
    |--E. tripos Mello-Leitão 1940K03
    `--E. vervloeti Soares 1944K03

Eusarcus Perty 1833K03 [=Eusarchus (l. c.)K03; incl. Enantiocentron Mello-Leitão 1932K03, Enanticocentron (l. c.)K03, Eusarcoides Roewer 1913K03, Goyazia Piza 1940K03, Metapucrolia Roewer 1913K03, Neopucrolia Roewer 1913K03, Orguesia Roewer 1913K03, Papageia Roewer 1943K03, Pareusarcus Mello-Leitão 1935 non Roewer 1929K03, Pindaiba Canals 1943K03, Pucroloides Roewer 1913K03, KA-Z11, PucrolioidesKA-Z11]

Eusarcus argentinus (Roewer 1913) [=*Pucroloides argentina, E. argentina, Pucrolioides argentina; incl. Pucrolia armata Sørensen 1895 non Eusarcus armatus Perty 1833, *Metapucrolia armata, *Neopucrolia pectinigera Roewer 1913, Eusarcus pectinigerus]K03

Eusarcus armatus Perty 1833K03 [=Eusarchus (l. c.) armatusR23; incl. Eusarcus pumilio Perty 1833K03, Eusarchus (l. c.) pumilioR23]

Eusarcus centromelos (Mello-Leitão 1935) [=*Pareusarcus centromelos, *Papageia centromelos, *Pindaiba centromelos; incl. Enantiocentron geniculatus Mello-Leitão 1936]K03

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A19] Acosta, L. E. 2019. A relictual troglomorphic harvestman discovered in a volcanic cave of western Argentina: Otilioleptes marcelae, new genus, new species, and Otilioleptidae, new family (Arachnida, Opiliones, Gonyleptoidea). PLoS One 14 (10): e0223828.

Hara, M. R., & R. Pinto-da-Rocha. 2010. Systematic review and cladistic analysis of the genus Eusarcus Perty 1833 (Arachnida, Opiliones, Gonyleptidae). Zootaxa 2698: 1–136.

[K03] Kury, A. B. 2003. Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, volumen especial monográfico 1: 1–337.

[KA-Z11] Kury, A. B., & M. A. Alonso-Zarazaga. 2011. Addenda and corrigenda to the “Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones)”. Zootaxa 3034: 47–68.

[KM20] Kury, A. B., A. C. Mendes, L. Cardoso, M. S. Kury & A. A. Granado. 2020. WCO-Lite: Online world catalogue of harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones). Version 1.0—Checklist of all valid nomina in Opiliones with authors and dates of publication up to 2018. Published by the author: Rio de Janeiro.

[P-GC17] Pérez-González, A., F. S. Ceccarelli, B. G. O. Monte, D. N. Proud, M. B. DaSilva & M. E. Bichuette. 2017. Light from dark: a relictual troglobite reveals a broader ancestral distribution for kimulid harvestmen (Opiliones: Laniatores: Kimulidae) in South America. PLoS One 12 (11): e0187919.

[R23] Roewer, C.-F. 1923. Die Weberknechte der Erde: Systematische Bearbeitung der bisher bekannnten Opiliones. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

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