Eusauropoda

Reconstruction of Mamenchisaurus, copyright DiBgd.

Belongs within: Sauropoda.
Contains: Neosauropoda.

The Eusauropoda is a clade of sauropods that has been defined as the smallest clade containing Shunosaurus and Saltasaurus; it contains almost all sauropods known from the Late Jurassic and Cretaceous (Upchurch et al. 2004). Basal members of the clade include Cetiosaurus from the Middle Jurassic of Europe, which was the first sauropod to be named (albeit under the inital mistaken belief that it was some form of marine reptile).

Characters (from Upchurch et al. 2004): Snout broadly rounded in dorsal view; caudal margin of external naris lying behind caudal margin of antorbital fenestra; lateral plate present on premaxillae, maxillae and dentaries; contact between dorsal ends of maxilla and lacrimal lying at caudodorsal margin of antorbital fenestra; platelike flange of bone present at base of maxillary ascending process; rostral process of quadratojugal at least twice as long as dorsal process; quadratojugal dorsal process expanded dorsoventrally at its tip; prefrontal rostral process absent; transverse width of frontals greater than rostrocaudal length; rostral tip of maxillary process of palatine expanded transversely; ectopterygoid process of pterygoid lying below rostral rim of orbit; diameter of external mandibular fenestra less than 10% of mandible length; tooth crown enamel wrinkled; caudalmost tooth lying beneath antorbital fenestra; at least twelve cervical vertebrae present; height of midcervical neural arches greater than diameter of centrum; caudal margin of caudal cervical neural spines sloping strongly forward in lateral view; dorsal surfaces of sacral plates level with dorsal margin of ilium; first caudal rib linked to neural arch by lamina; carpals blocklike; metacarpals arranged in U-shaped colonnade; manual phalanges (apart from unguals) wider transversely than proximodistally; manual digits II–IV having two or fewer phalanges; dorsal margin of ilium strongly convex in lateral view; ischial peduncle of ilium reduced, long axis of iliac blade sloping craniodorsally in lateral view; middle and distal portions of pubis lying in same plane as proximal part; femoral cranial trochanter absent; medial malleolus of tibia reduced, exposing caudal fossa of astragalus in caudal view; lateral muscle scar present at midlength on fibula; metatarsals II–IV diverging distally; ratio of length to proximal transverse width for metatarsal I 1.5 or less; pedal digit IV with three phalanges; pedal phalanges lacking collateral ligament pits; nonungual pedal phalanges wider transversely than proximodistally; pedal digits II–IV with rudimentary penultimate phalanges; ratio of ungual length to metatarsal length for pedal digit I greater than 1.0; unguals for pedal digits II and III with transversely compressed proximal articular ends.

<==Eusauropoda [Bothrosauropodidae, Cetiosauridae, Ornithopsidae, Somphospondylii]
    |--Shunosaurus Dong, Zhou & Zhang 1983R-TCA06, UBD04 [Shunosaurinae]
    |    |--S. lii Dong, Zhou & Zhang 1983UBD04
    |    `--S. ziliujingensisD07
    `--+--Jobaria Sereno, Beck et al. 1999R-TCA06, UBD04
       |    `--J. tiguidensis Sereno, Beck et al. 1999UBD04
       `--+--Atlasaurus Monbaron, Russell & Taquet 1999R-TCA06, UBD04
          |    `--A. imelakei Monbaron, Russell & Taquet 1999UBD04
          `--+--+--NeosauropodaR-TCA06
             |  `--TuriasauriaR-TCA06
             |       |  i. s.: ‘Cetiosauriscus’ greppiniP10
             |       |--Galveosaurus herreroiR-TCA06, P10
             |       `--+--Losillasaurus Casanovas, Santafé & Sanz 2001R-TCA06, UBD04
             |          |    `--L. giganteus Casanovas, Santafé & Sanz 2001UBD04
             |          `--Turiasaurus Royo-Torres, Cobos & Alcalá 2006R-TCA06
             |               `--*T. riodevensis Royo-Torres, Cobos & Alcalá 2006R-TCA06
             `--+--Cetiosaurus Owen 1841R-TCA06, UM02 [Cetiosaurinae]
                |    |--*C. oxoniensis Phillips 1871UM02 (see below for synonymy)
                |    |--C. brachyurus (n. d.)UM02
                |    |--C. medius Owen 1842 (n. d.)UM02
                |    `--C. mogrebiensis Lapparent 1955 (n. d.)UBD04
                `--+--Patagosaurus Bonaparte 1979R-TCA06, UBD04
                   |    `--P. fariasi Bonaparte 1979UBD04
                   `--+--Barapasaurus Jain, Kutty et al. 1975R-TCA06, UBD04
                      |    `--B. tagorei Jain, Kutty et al. 1975UBD04
                      `--EuhelopodidaeWS98
                           |  i. s.: Hudiesaurus Dong 1997Y03, UBD04
                           |           `--H. sinojapanorum Dong 1997UBD04
                           |         Eomamenchisaurus yuanmouensisP10
                           |--+--Cetiosauriscus Huene 1927RR05, UBD04
                           |  |    |--C. glymptonensis (Phillips 1871) [=Cetiosaurus glymptonensis]UBD04
                           |  |    `--C. stewarti Charig 1980 [incl. Cetiosaurus leedsi Woodward 1905]UBD04
                           |  `--Omeisaurus Young 1939R-TCA06, UBD04
                           |       |--*O. junghsiensis Young 1939WS98, UBD04
                           |       |--O. changshouensis Young 1958 (n. d.)UBD04
                           |       |--O. fuxiensis Dong, Zhou & Zhang 1983 (n. d.)UBD04
                           |       |--O. luoquanensis Li 1988 (n. d.)UBD04
                           |       |--O. maoianusP10
                           |       `--O. tianfuensis He, Li et al. 1984UBD04
                           `--+--Euhelopus Romer 1956R-TCA06, UBD04 [=Helopus Wiman 1929 (preoc.)UBD04; Euhelopodinae]
                              |    `--E. zdanskyi (Wiman 1929) [=Helopus zdanskyi]UBD04
                              `--Mamenchisaurus Young 1954R-TCA06, UBD04 (see below for synonymy)
                                   |--M. anyuensis He, Yang et al. 1996UBD04
                                   |--M. constructus Young 1954UBD04
                                   |--M. fuxiensis (Hou, Chao & Chu 1976) (see below for synonymy)UBD04
                                   |--M. hochuanensis Young & Chao 1972UBD04
                                   |--M. jingyanensis Zhang & Li in Zhang & Chen 1996UBD04
                                   |--M. sinocanadorum Russell & Zheng 1993UBD04
                                   `--M. youngi Pi, Ouyang & Ye 1996UBD04
Eusauropoda incertae sedis:
  Rhoetosaurus Longman 1926B93, UBD04
    `--R. brownei Longman 1926UBD04
  Chuanjiesaurus Fang, Pang et al. 2000P10, UBD04
    `--C. anaensis Fang, Pang et al. 2000UBD04
  Dystrophaeus Cope 1877P10, UBD04
    `--*D. viaemalae Cope 1877C77
  Datousaurus Dong & Tang 1984P10, UBD04
    `--D. bashanensis Dong & Tang 1984UBD04
  Yuanmousaurus jiangyiensisP10
  Chebsaurus algeriensisP10
  Ferganasaurus Alifanov & Averianov 2003P10, D07
    `--F. verziliniD07
Nomina nuda: Cetiosaurus epioolithicusUM02
             Cetiosaurus hypoolithicusUM02

*Cetiosaurus oxoniensis Phillips 1871UM02 [=Cardiodon oxoniensisUM02, Ornithopsis oxoniensisUM02; incl. Cetiosaurus giganteus Owen in Huxley 1870 (n. n.)UBD04, Cetiosaurus longus Owen 1875UM02, Cetiosauriscus longusUBD04]

Mamenchisaurus Young 1954R-TCA06, UBD04 [incl. Zigongosaurus Hou, Chao & Chu 1976UBD04; Mamenchisaurinae]

Mamenchisaurus fuxiensis (Hou, Chao & Chu 1976) [=Zigongosaurus fuxiensis, Zizhongosaurus fuxiensis]UBD04

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B93] Benton, M. J. 1993. Reptilia. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 681–715. Chapman & Hall: London.

[C77] Cope, E. D. 1877. Report upon the extinct Vertebrata obtained in New Mexico by parties of the expedition of 1874. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (2): i–iv, 1–370.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[P10] Paul, G. S. 2010. Dinosaurs: A Field Guide. A & C Black.

[RR05] Rauhut, O. W. M., K. Remes, R. Fechner, G. Cladera & P. Puerta. 2005. Discovery of a short-necked sauropod dinosaur from the Late Jurassic period of Patagonia. Nature 435: 670–672.

[R-TCA06] Royo-Torres, R., A. Cobos & L. Alcalá. 2006. A giant European dinosaur and a new sauropod clade. Science 314: 1925–1927.

[UBD04] Upchurch, P., P. M. Barrett & P. Dodson. 2004. Sauropoda. In: Weishampel, D. B., P. Dodson & H. Osmólska (eds) The Dinosauria 2nd ed. pp. 259–322. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[UM02] Upchurch, P., & J. Martin. 2002. The Rutland Cetiosaurus: the anatomy and relationships of a Middle Jurassic British sauropod dinosaur. Palaeontology 45 (6): 1049–1074.

[WS98] Wilson, J. A., & P. C. Sereno. 1998. Early evolution and higher-level phylogeny of sauropod dinosaurs. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 18 (2 Suppl.): 1–68.

[Y03] Yates, A. M. 2003. A new species of the primitive dinosaur Thecodontosaurus (Saurischia: Sauropodomorpha) and its implications for the systematics of early dinosaurs. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 1: 1–42.

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