Eviphidoidea

Thinoseius spinosus, copyright Steve Coulson.

Belongs within: Gamasina.
Contains: Pachylaelapidae, Leptolaelapidae, Macrochelidae, Parholaspididae.

The Eviphidoidea are a group of primarily soil- and litter-dwelling predatory mites. Many species have become adapted to transient habitats such as dung and carrion through phoretic associations with flying insects for dispersal. Conversely, many species of the family Eviphididae are non-phoretic and found in more stable habitats such as humus and moss.

Eviphididae are characterised by the presence of an anal shield, one anterolateral seta each on genu and tibia I, and the tectum is usually produced into an elongated, lance-like process (Lindquist et al. 1979). Members of the genus Thinoseius have a multidentate tectum and exhibit marked sexual dimorphism in idiosomal sclerotisation and the shape of the dorsal setae (Evans & Till 1979). Bulbogamasus sinicus is an eviphidoid-like mite of uncertain affinities described in association with scarab beetles in China (Lindquist et al. 2009).

Characters (from Lindquist et al. 2009): Adult dorsal shield entire; sternal shield of female with 3–4 pairs of setae, metasternal setae on small shields that are amalgamated with adjacent sternal-endopodal elements or present as discrete shields, occasionally inserted free in the integument; preendopodal platelets present or absent, female with a ventrianal or anal shield. Tibia I with 1 posteroventral seta, 2–3 posterodorsal setae, and 1 or 2 anterolateral setae (1(2) 3/2, 2(3)/1 2), tibia III with 7-8 setae (1(2) 1/1, 2/1 1). Palptarsal apotele 2–3-tined, epistome variously produced. Female podospermous, sacculus of the “A” or laelapid type. Male with genital aperture at anterior margin of a holoventral or sternitigenital shield; spematodactyl arises either from internal or external face of movable digit, free distally. Dorsal shield of deutonymph divided or entire; protonymph with 8-11 pairs of pygidial setae; larva with or without pygidial shield.

<==EviphidoideaLKW09
    |  i. s.: Bulbogamasus [Bulbogamasidae]LKW09
    |           `--B. sinicusLKW09
    |--+--PachylaelapidaeK91
    |  `--+--LeptolaelapidaeK91
    |     `--+--MacrochelidaeK91
    |        `--ParholaspididaeK91
    `--Eviphididae [Eviphidini]K91
         |  i. s.: ScamiphisLKW09
         |         RafaphisLKW09
         |         Scarabacariphis grandisternalisLKW09
         |         Canestriniphis Potter & Johnston 1976FH93
         |           `--C. megalodacne Potter & Johnston 1976FH93
         |         IphidiosomaS61
         |           |--I. bennwili Schweizer 1961S61
         |           `--I. fimetariumS61
         |--Thinoseius Halbert 1920FH93 [incl. Gammaridacarus Canaris 1962FH93, Ligialaelaps Radford 1942FH93; ThinoseiinaeET79]
         |    |--*T. berlesei Halbert 1920ET79 [incl. Lasioseius fucicola Halbert 1920ET79, T. fucicolaS79]
         |    |--T. acuminatusET79
         |    |--T. brevisternalis (Canaris 1962) [=Gammaridacarus brevisternalis]FH93
         |    |--T. hirschmanniP94
         |    |--T. kargi Hirschmann 1966H66
         |    |--T. orchestoideae (Hall 1912) [=Seius orchestoideae]FH93
         |    |--T. ramsayi Evans 1969L90
         |    |--T. schusteri Hirschmann 1966H66
         |    `--T. spinosus (Willmann 1939) (see below for synonymy)FH93
         `--EviphidinaeKA90
              |--Scamaphis Karg 1976ET79
              |    `--*S. equestris (Berl. 1911) [=Iphis (Pelethiphis) equestris; incl. S. exanimis Karg 1976]ET79
              |--Evimirus Karg 1963ET79
              |    |--*E. uropodinus (Berlese 1904)ET79, FH93 [=Eviphis uropodinaFH93]
              |    `--E. pulcherpori Karg 1989FH93
              |--Crassicheles Karg 1963ET79
              |    |--*C. concentricus (Oudemans 1904) [=Eviphis concentricus]ET79
              |    `--C. holsaticusET79
              |--Scarabaspis Womersley 1956ET79
              |    |--*S. inexpectatus (Oudemans 1903)ET79 [=Eumaeus inexpectatusET79, Iphidozercon inespectatusS61]
              |    |--S. orientalis (Berlese 1920) [=Iphidozercon orientalis; incl. S. aspera Womersley 1956]H98
              |    `--S. rykeiLKW09
              |--Alliphis Halbert 1923ET79
              |    |--*A. halleri (Canestrini & Canestrini 1881)ET79 (see below for synonymy)
              |    |--A. alpinus Schweizer 1961S61
              |    `--A. oviforme (Schweizer 1949) [=Ameroseius oviforme]S61
              |--Copriphis Berlese 1910ET79
              |    |--*C. pterophilus (Berl. 1882) [=Iphis pterophilus]ET79
              |    |--C. (Pelethiphis) dermanyssoides Berlese 1911FH93
              |    |--C. elongatus Berlese 1911FH93
              |    |--C. hastatellusRK91
              |    |--C. janetscheki Schmölzer 1956R61
              |    `--C. variola Schweizer 1949S61
              `--Eviphis Berlese 1903 [incl. Iphidoides Oudemans 1904, Iphis Koch 1835]FH93
                   |--*E. pyrobolus (Koch 1839)ET79 [=Iphis pyrobolusFH93, Eumaeus pyrobolusET79]
                   |--E. drepanogasterLKW09
                   |--E. exemplaris Vitzthum 1925V25
                   |--E. halleriS22
                   |--E. ostrinus (Koch 1835) [=*Iphis ostrinus]FH93
                   |--E. rufus Oudemans 1914V25
                   `--E. stephaniniarusLKW09

*Alliphis halleri (Canestrini & Canestrini 1881)ET79 [=Gamasus halleriFH93; incl. A. alpinus Schweizer 1961FH93, Copriphis (Pelethiphis) crinitus var. curtipilus Berlese 1911FH93, Eviphis siculus Oudemans 1905FH93, Alliphis siculusFH93]

Thinoseius spinosus (Willmann 1939) [=Lasioseius spinosus; incl. L. spinatus Sellnick 1940, L. uncinatus Sellnick 1940]FH93

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[ET79] Evans, G. O., & W. M. Till. 1979. Mesostigmatic mites of Britain and Ireland (Chelicerata: Acari-Parasitiformes). An introduction to their external morphology and classification. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 35: 139–270.

[FH93] Farrier, M. H., & M. K. Hennessey. 1993. Soil-inhabiting and free-living Mesostigmata (Acari-Parasitiformes) from North America: an annotated checklist with bibliography and index. North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, North Carolina State University, Technical Bulletin 302: i–xvi, 1–408.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[H66] Hirschmann, W. 1966. Gangsystematik der Parasitiformes. Teil 15. Gänge von Litoralmilben und neue Litoralmilbenarten. Acarologie: Schriftenreihe für Vergleichende Milbenkunde 9: 25–44.

[K91] Karg, W. 1991. The integration of morphologic, biogeographic and palaeogeographic studies to reveal the phylogeny of predatory mites. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 121–127. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[KA90] Krantz, G. W., & B. D. Ainscough. 1990. Acarina: Mesostigmata (Gamasida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 583–665. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[LKW09] Lindquist, E. E., G. W. Krantz & D. E. Walter. 2009. Order Mesostigmata. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 124–232. Texas Tech University Press.

[L90] Luxton, M. 1990. The marine littoral mites of the New Zealand region. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 20 (4): 367–418.

[P94] Pugh, P. J. A. 1994. Non-indigenous Acari of Antarctica and the sub-Antarctic islands. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 110: 207–217.

[RK91] Royce, L. A., & G. W. Krantz. 1991. A new rearing method for nematophagous mites. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 619–622. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[R61] Ryke, P. A. J. 1961. A review of the genus Saintdidieria Oudemans (Acarina: Rhodacaridae) with remarks on the genus Lobocephalus Kramer. Acarologia 3 (3): 250–255.

[S79] Schuster, R. 1979. Soil mites in the marine environment. Recent Advances in Acarology 1: 593–602.

[S22] Schweizer, J. 1922. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der terrestrischen Milbenfauna der Schweiz. Verhandl. Naturf. Ges. Basel 33: 23–112, 4 pls.

[S61] Schweizer, J. 1961. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Parasitiformes Reuter, mit 246 Arten und Varietäten und 268 meist kombinierten Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84: i–vii, 1–207.

[V25] Vitzthum, H. 1925. Fauna sumatrensis. (Beitrag no. 5). Acarinae. Supplementa Entomologica 11: 1–79.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *