Yellowtip halfbeak Hemirhamphus marginatus, copyright John E. Randall.

Belongs within: Atherinomorpha.
Contains: Belonidae, Exocoetidae.

The Exocoetoidei are a group of fishes in which the lower jaw is elongate for at least part of the life history. Members of the suborder also possess a plate-like process on the posterioventral part of the basioccipital, one nasal opening on each side of the head, a median lower pharyngeal tooth plate, and more than three anterior branchiostegals (Bond 1996).

|  i. s.: Zenarchopterus M58 [Zenarchopteridae B-RB13]
|           |–Z. brevirostris (Günther 1866) [=Hemirhamphus brevirostris] M58
|           |–Z. buffonis (Valenciennes 1846) [=Hemiramphus buffonis] M58
|           |–Z. dispar (Valenciennes 1846) [=Hemirhamphus dispar] M58
|           |–Z. dunckeri Mohr 1926 M58
|           |–Z. kampeni (Weber 1913) [=Hemiramphus (Zenarchopterus) kampeni] M58
|           |–Z. novaeguineae (Weber 1913) [=Hemiramphus (Zenarchopterus) novaeguineae] M58
|           |–Z. philippinus (Peters 1868) [=Hemirhamphus (Zenarchopterus) philippinus] JR10
|           `–Z. sepikensis Herre 1935 M58
|–+–Dermogenys collettei ND13
|  `–+–Xenentodon cancila ND13
|     `–Scomberesocoidei M58
|          |–+–Belonidae ND13
|          |  `–Platybelone argala ND13
|          `–Scomberesocidae C02a
|               |–Cololabis saira B96
|               |–Cobitopsis acutus R13
|               |–Chriodorus atherinoides R13
|               `–Scomberesox ND13
|                    |–S. edwardsi Jordan & Gilbert 1919 P93
|                    |–S. licatae Sauvage 1880 P93
|                    `–S. saurus (Walbaum 1792) C02a
`–+–Exocoetidae ND13
`–Hemiramphidae G75
|–Rhynchorhamphus georgii (Valenciennes 1846) M58 (see below for synonymy)
|–Labidorhamphus caudovittatus (Weber 1908) [=Hemiramphus (Zenarchopterus) caudovittatus] M58
|–Arrhamphus sclerolepis ND13
|    |–A. s. sclerolepis G75
|    `–A. s. kreffti G75
|–Euleptorhamphus C02b
|    |–E. longirostris (Cuvier 1829) [=Hemirhamphus longirostris] M58
|    |–E. velox C02b
|    `–E. viridis G75
|–Hyporhamphus C02b
|    |–H. australis [=Hemirhamphus australis] G75
|    |–H. erythrorhinchus (Lesueur 1821) M58 (see below for synonymy)
|    |–H. gaimardi (Valenciennes 1846) [=Hemirhamphus gaimardi] M58
|    |–H. intermedius T90
|    |–H. meeki Banford & Collette 1993 C02b
|    |–H. melanochir G75
|    |–H. regularis G75
|    |    |–H. r. regularis G75
|    |    `–H. r. ardelio G75
|    |–H. sajori (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) PC01 [=Hemiramphus sajori MK00]
|    `–H. unifasciatus (Ranzani 1842) [=Hemirhamphus unifasciatus] M58
`–Hemirhamphus M58
|–H. balinensis Bleeker 1858-1859 M58
|–H. brasiliensis [incl. H. pleii Günther 1866] F16
|–H. commersonii Cuvier 1829 [incl. H. far Weber 1913, H. moar Thiollière 1857] M58
|–H. cotnog Smith 1902 JR10
|–H. edwardsi Bassani 1876 P93
|–H. limbatus JR10
|–H. lutkei JR10
|–H. marginatus JR10
|–H. melanurus Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846 M58
|–H. neglectus JR10
|–H. ovalis Stinton 1978 P93
|–H. quoyi Valenciennes 1846 M58 [=Hyporhamphus quoyi G75; incl. Reporhamphus caudalis G75]
`–H. robustus G75

Inorganic: Hemiramphus sajori minilorientalus Okamura 1987 O87

Hyporhamphus erythrorhinchus (Lesueur 1821) M58 [=Hemirhamphus erythrorhinchus M58; incl. He. dussumieri Herre 1931 M58, Hyporhamphus dussumieri G75]

Rhynchorhamphus georgii (Valenciennes 1846) M58 [=Hemirhamphus georgii M58; incl. Hemiramphus cantori Macleay 1883 M58, Loligorhamphus normani G75]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B-RB13] Betancur-R., R., R. E. Broughton, E. O. Wiley, K. Carpenter, A. López, C. Li, N. I. Holcroft, D. Arcila, M. Sanciangco, J. C. Cureton, II, F. Zhang, T. Buser, M. A. Campbell, J. A. Ballesteros, A. Roa-Varon, S. Willis, W. C. Borden, T. Rowley, P. C. Reneau, D. J. Hough, G. Lu, T. Grande, G. Arratia & G. Ortí. 2013. The tree of life and a new classification of bony fishes. PLoS Currents Tree of Life April 18 2013. doi: 10.1371/currents.tol.53ba26640df0ccaee75bb165c8c26288.

[B96] Bond, C. E. 1996. Biology of Fishes 2nd ed. Saunders College Publishing: Fort Worth.

[C02a] Collette, B. B. 2002a. Sauries. Family Scomberesocidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 285–287. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[C02b] Collette, B. B. 2002b. Halfbeaks. Family Hemiramphidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 289–291. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[F16] Fowler, H. W. 1916. The fishes of Trinidad, Grenada, and St. Lucia, British West Indies. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (3): 520–548.

[G75] Grant, E. M. 1975. Guide to Fishes. The Co-ordinator-General’s Department: Brisbane (Australia).

[JR10] Jordan, D. S., & R. E. Richardson. 1910. Check-list of the species of fishes known from the Philippine archipelago. Bureau of Printing: Manila.

[MK00] Machida, M., & T. Kuramochi. 2000. Digenean trematodes from halfbeaks and needlefishes of Japan and adjacent waters. Bulletin of the Natural Science Museum Series A (Zoology) 26: 203–218.

[M58] Munro, I. S. R. 1958. The fishes of the New Guinea region: A check-list of the fishes of New Guinea incorporating records of species collected by the Fisheries Survey Vessel “Fairwind” during the years 1948 to 1950. Papua and New Guinea Agricultural Journal 10 (4): 97–369 (reprinted 1958. Territory of Papua and New Guinea Fisheries Bulletin no. 1).

[ND13] Near, T. J., A. Dornburg, R. I. Eytan, B. P. Keck, W. L. Smith, K. L. Kuhn, J. A. Moore, S. A. Price, F. T. Burbrink, M. Friedman & P. C. Wainwright. 2013. Phylogeny and tempo of diversification in the superradiation of spiny-rayed fishes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 110 (31): 12738–12743.

[O87] Okamura, C. 1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory 15: 347–573.

[P93] Patterson, C. 1993. Osteichthyes: Teleostei. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 621–656. Chapman & Hall: London.

[PC01] Pichelin, S., & T. H. Cribb. 2001. The status of the Diplosentidae (Acanthocephala: Palaeacanthocephala) and a new family of acanthocephalans from Australian wrasses (Pisces: Labridae). Folia Parasitologica 48: 289–303.

[R13] Regan, C. T. 1913. The classification of the percoid fishes. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 8, 12: 111–145.

[T90] Taguchi, S. 1990. Nihon no Sakana. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

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