Exoristinae

Australian leafroller tachinid Trigonospila brevifacies, copyright Katja Schulz.

Belongs within: Tachinidae.
Contains: Ethillini, Winthemiini, Exoristini, Blondeliini, Eryciini.

The Exoristinae are a poorly defined group of parasitoid flies, most of which possess setae on the prosternum. Members include both oviparous and ovolarviparous species with phylogenetic analysis suggesting multiple origins of ovolarviparity from oviparous ancestors and vice versa. The ancestral hosts of Exoristinae were likely to be Lepidoptera with, again, multiple transitions to other hosts such as Coleoptera or Orthoptera (Stireman et al. 2019). Parasitoids of Lepidoptera include the cosmopolitan genus Trigonospila, in which the prosternum is bare, as is the arista, and the eye is kidney-shaped (Wood & Zumbado 2010). Larvae of the Neotropical genus Phyllophilopsis are parasites of endomychid beetles (Wood & Zumbado 2010).

<==Exoristinae [Goniidae, Goniinae]WZ10
|--TrigonospilaSC19
| |--T. brevifaciesWFS04
| |--T. cingulataSC19
| `--T. verticalisWZ10
`--+--EthilliniSC19
`--+--WinthemiiniSC19
`--+--+--Gastrolepta anthracinaSC19
| `--+--UromedinaSC19
| `--Phyllophilopsis nitensSC19, WZ10
`--+--+--Staurocheta albocingulataSC19
| `--ExoristiniSC19
`--+--BlondeliiniSC19
`--EryciiniSC19

Exoristinae incertae sedis:
Myothyriopsis pictaWZ10
Acantholespesia Wood 1987WZ10, W87
|--*A. comstockiW87
|--A. signataW87
`--A. texanaW87
CyzenisWZ10
|--C. albicansWZ10 [=Monochaeta albicansA71]
|--C. anassaW87
|--C. browni [=Zenillia browni]W87
|--C. festinansW87
|--C. incrassataW87
|--C. mitisW87
|--C. regillaW87
`--C. ustulataWZ10
Eunemorilla longicornisWZ10, W87
ZygozenilliaWZ10
Aplomyopsis politaWZ10
ChoeteprosopaWZ10
AtactosturmiaWZ10
Argyrochaetona cubanaWZ10
Atacta brasiliensisWZ10
ZizyphomyiaWZ10
|--Z. chihuahuaensis [=Drino chihuahuaensis; incl. Sturmia chrysoprocta]W87
|--Z. crescentis [=Drino crescentis]W87
`--Z. limataW87
SturmiomimaWZ10
NeothelairiniWZ10
SturmiiniF92
|--Sturmiopsis Townsend 1916F92
| `--*S. inferens Townsend 1916F92
`--Pseudoperichaeta Brauer & Bergenstamm 1889F92
|--*P. palesoideaF92
`--P. nigrolineata Walker 1853 (see below for synonymy)F92

Pseudoperichaeta nigrolineata Walker 1853 [incl. Phorocera atripalpis Rondani 1868, Ps. insidiosa, Ph. pumilio Aldrich 1933]F92

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[SC19] Stireman, J. O., III, P. Cerretti, J. E. O’Hara, J. D. Blaschke & J. K. Moulton. 2019. Molecular phylogeny and evolution of world Tachinidae (Diptera). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 139: 106358.

[WFS04] Winks, C. J., S. V. Fowler & L. A. Smith. 2004. Invertebrate fauna of boneseed, Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera (L.) T. Norl. (Asteraceae: Calenduleae), an invasive weed in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 61–72.

[W87] Wood, D. M. 1987. Tachinidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1193–1269. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[WZ10] Wood, D. M., & M. A. Zumbado. 2010. Tachinidae (tachinid flies, parasitic flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1343–1417. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

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