Stand of cork oak Quercus suber, photographed by Guiliano Campus.

Belongs within: Faganae.
Contains: Castanopsis.

The Fagaceae (including beech, oaks and chestnuts) are a family of trees found in a band across the Americas and Eurasia, with species in northernmost Africa and New Guinea. Many species are dominant forest trees in parts of their ranges, and the chestnuts of the genus Castanea are important food plants. As well as chestnuts, important genera in the family include the beeches Fagus and the oaks Quercus. Many oak species are used as sources as wood; the thick bark of the cork oak Quercus suber is used as the source for natural cork.

Species of Fagus and Castanea produce one or more nuts enclosed in a spiny or prickled cupule; Quercus species produce a single acorn contained in a scaly cup (K. C. Nixon). In Castanea, the spines on the cupule are branched and often obscure the cupule surface whereas they are unbranched in Fagus. Lithocarpus, the stone oaks, are a genus similar to Quercus but with erect male spikes, found in southeast and east Asia. The Trigonobalanoideae is a small group found in south-east Asia and northern South America producing one to seven trigonous nuts in an open cupule.

Characters (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Hairs often stellate/branched; sclereid nests in bark, cells with large rhomboidal crystals; stomata also cyclocytic; leaves conduplicate-plicate; inflorescence branched or not; flowers often trimerous; perianth biseriate or not, 4-6(-7)-lobed; staminate flowers: bract; pollen prolate-spheroidal, not spiny, tectum with more or less flat-lying and fused rod-like elements, pistillode present; carpellate flowers: staminodes present; cupule of valves more or less spiny, fruit nut-like, trigonous; endocarp hairy inside; seed pachychalazal.

    |    |--ColombobalanusT00
    |    |--FormanodendronT00
    |    `--TrigonobalanusT00
    |--CastaneaB14 [CastaneoideaeT00]
    |    |--C. crenata [incl. C. vulgaris]LO98
    |    |--C. dentataB14
    |    |--C. sativaG98
    |    `--C. vescaC55
    |--FagusCD07 [FagoideaeT00]
    |    |--F. benthami Ettingshausen 1886F71
    |    |--F. crenataTMS91
    |    |--F. cunninghamiiC45
    |    |--F. englerianaLI89
    |    |--F. grandifolia Ehrh. 1788CD07
    |    |--F. hookeri Ettingshausen 1886F71
    |    |--F. muelleri Ettingshausen 1886F71
    |    |--F. ninnisianaH79
    |    |--F. orientalisM06
    |    |--F. succineaF91
    |    |--F. sylvaticaR-CT01
    |    `--F. wilkinsoni Ettingshausen 1883F71
    `--QuercusB14 [QuercoideaeT00]
         |  i. s.: Q. acuta [=Q. aluta (l. c.)]LO98
         |         Q. × acutidens [Q. cornelius-mulleri × Q. engelmannii]H93
         |         Q. acutissimaMH98
         |         Q. afaresB84
         |         Q. agrifoliaM93
         |           |--Q. a. var. agrifoliaH93
         |           `--Q. a. var. oxyadeniaH93
         |         Q. ajoensisM69b
         |         Q. alba Linnaeus 1753DSA04
         |         Q. alnifoliaD30
         |         Q. × alvordiana [Q. douglasii × Q. john-tuckeri]H93
         |         Q. angustataT-W89
         |         Q. aristataBTA75
         |         Q. arizonicaBT87
         |         Q. austini Ettingshausen 1886F71
         |         Q. berberidifoliaH93
         |         Q. bicolorA81
         |         Q. buckleyiHH05
         |         Q. calliprinosHF03
         |         Q. candicansRJ11
         |         Q. catesbaeiC55
         |         Q. chrysolepis [incl. Q. chrysolepis var. nana]H93
         |         Q. coccineaS00
         |         Q. conzatiiBT87
         |         Q. copyiensisMM96
         |         Q. cornelius-mulleriH93
         |         Q. costataT-W89
         |         Q. crispulaMH98
         |         Q. dalechampiiR-CT01
         |         Q. dampieri Ettingshausen 1886F71
         |         Q. daphnoideaT-W89
         |         Q. darwinii Ettingshausen 1883F71
         |         Q. delechampiiRCT96
         |         Q. dentataT86
         |         Q. douglasiiHH05
         |         Q. drymejoides Ettingshausen 1883F71
         |         Q. dumosaH93
         |         Q. durataH93
         |           |--Q. d. var. durataH93
         |           `--Q. d. var. gabrielensisH93
         |         Q. elegansT-W89
         |         Q. engelmanniiH93
         |         Q. eumoryiSZ03
         |         Q. fagineaR-RR-GM-S98
         |         Q. falcataS00
         |         Q. frainettoG98
         |         Q. gambelliiRJ11
         |         Q. garryianaB-PEC05
         |           |--Q. g. var. garryianaH93
         |           `--Q. g. var. breweriH93
         |         Q. gemellifloraT-W89
         |         Q. glaberrimaT-W89
         |         Q. glauca [incl. Q. shalassica (l. c.)]LO98
         |         Q. glaucoidesFZ77
         |         Q. gravesiiSZ03
         |         Q. hapaloneuron Ettingshausen 1886F71
         |         Q. harvardiW01
         |         Q. hookeri Ettingshusen 1883F71
         |         Q. humboldtiiR96
         |         Q. humilisC55
         |         Q. ilicifoliaWW96
         |         Q. incanaB14
         |         Q. indutaT-W89
         |         Q. ithaburensisHF03
         |         Q. john-tuckeri [incl. Q. turbinella var. californica]H93
         |         Q. kelloggiiH93
         |         Q. laevisCS90
         |         Q. lakevillensis Dorf 1930AD84
         |         Q. lanceaefoliaDD73
         |         Q. lanuginosaF63
         |         Q. laurifoliaM57
         |         Q. laurinaBT87
         |         Q. leucotrichophoraN02
         |         Q. lobataS62
         |         Q. lusitanicaR-RR-GM-S98
         |         Q. × macdonaldii [Q. berberidifolia × Q. lobata]H93
         |         Q. macrocarpaHeal03
         |         Q. magnoliaefoliaBT87
         |         Q. marilandicaWW96
         |         Q. minorG17
         |         Q. mirbeckiiB84
         |         Q. mongolicaLO98
         |           |--Q. m. var. mongolicaLO98
         |           `--Q. m. var. grosseserrataLO98
         |         Q. morheusAD84
         |         Q. myrsinaefoliaMH98
         |         Q. nigraCB06
         |         Q. pallidaT-W89
         |         Q. palmeri [incl. Q. dunnii]H93
         |         Q. palustrisB00
         |         Q. parvulaH93
         |           |--Q. p. var. parvulaH93
         |           `--Q. p. var. shreveiH93
         |         Q. peninsularisM69a
         |         Q. phillyraeoidesMH98 [=Q. phyllirioidesLO98]
         |         Q. placentariaT-W89
         |         Q. platycarpaT-W89
         |         Q. praephilippinensis Ettingshausen 1883F71
         |         Q. prinoidesWW96
         |         Q. prinusCS05
         |         Q. pruinosaT-W89
         |         Q. pseudomoluccaT-W89
         |         Q. pubescensR-CT01
         |         Q. rotundataT-W89
         |         Q. rotundifolia [=Q. ilex ssp. rotundifolia]R-RR-GM-S98
         |         Q. rubraHH05
         |         Q. rugosaRJ11
         |         Q. sadlerianaH93
         |         Q. semecarpifoliaM18
         |         Q. serrataMH98 [incl. Q. glanduliferaLO98]
         |         Q. sessilifloraA81
         |         Q. sessilisN77
         |         Q. sundaicaT-W89
         |         Q. tolimensisR96
         |         Q. tomentellaRJ11
         |         Q. tozaC55
         |         Q. turbinataT-W89
         |         Q. turbinellaMBJ83
         |         Q. vaccinifoliaH93
         |         Q. velutinaCS05
         |         Q. virensP09
         |         Q. virginianaF11
         |         Q. wilkinsoni Ettingshausen 1886F71
         |         Q. wislizeniiH93
         |           |--Q. w. var. wislizeniiH93
         |           `--Q. w. var. frutescensH93
         |--Q. subg. QuercusR-RR-GM-S98
         |    |--Q. petraeaR-RR-GM-S98
         |    |--Q. pyrenaicaR-RR-GM-S98
         |    `--Q. roburR-RR-GM-S98
         |         |--Q. r. var. roburA81
         |         `--Q. r. var. pedunculataA81
         |--Q. subg. CerrisR-RR-GM-S98
         |    |--Q. cerrisR-RR-GM-S98
         |    |--Q. macrolepisR-RR-GM-S98
         |    |--Q. suberR-RR-GM-S98
         |    `--Q. trojanaR-RR-GM-S98
         `--Q. subg. SclerophyllodrysR-RR-GM-S98
              |--Q. coccifera Linnaeus 1753R-RR-GM-S98, PL04 [incl. Q. pseudococciferaR-RR-GM-S98]
              `--Q. ilexR-RR-GM-S98
                   |--Q. i. ssp. ilexR-RR-GM-S98
                   `--Q. i. ssp. ballotaR-RR-GM-S98
Fagaceae incertae sedis:
    |--L. dealbata [=Pasania dealbata]DD73
    |--L. densiflorusH93
    |    |--L. d. var. densiflorusH93
    |    `--L. d. var. echinoidesH93
    |--L. edulisMH98
    |--L. fenestrata [=Pasania fenestratus]DD73
    |--L. henryiLI89
    `--L. spicata [=Pasania spicata]DD73
  Eotrigonobalanus Walther & Kvaček 1989HL08
    |--E. andreanszkyiJD05
    `--E. furcinervis (Rossmässler) Walther & Kvaček 1989 (see below for synonymy)HL08
    |--C. chrysophylla [=Castanopsis chrysophylla]H93
    |    |--C. c. var. chrysophyllaH93
    |    `--C. c. var. minor [=Castanopsis chrysophylla var. minor]H93
    `--C. sempervirens [=Castanopsis sempervirens]H93
  Nothofagoxylon scalariforme Gothan 1908CBH93
    |--N. asperusOW01
    |--N. kaitangataV12
    |--N. senectusCBH93
    `--N. waipawaensisV12
    |--D. curticellenseJD05
    |--D. howitti Ettingshausen 1886F71
    `--D. moselenseJD05

Eotrigonobalanus furcinervis (Rossmässler) Walther & Kvaček 1989 [=Phyllites furcinervis Rossmässler 1840, Dryophyllum furcinerve; incl. D. album Rüffle, Müller-Stoll & Litke 1976]HL08

*Type species of generic name indicated


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