Falco

 Eurasian kestrel Falco tinnunculus, from here.

Belongs within: Falconidae.

Falco is a cosmopolitan genus containing the true falcons; the peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus is one of the world’s most widely distributed bird species. Falcons have long pointed wings, unfeathered tarsi and a notch in the upper bill.

In the tree below, the first group to separate from the remaining species (Falco zoniventris to F. tinnunculus) contains the kestrels, mostly small falcons that hover while looking for prey. The remaining species are mostly larger and often darker in coloration, though the American kestrel F. sparverius is the smallest falcon in North America. The merlin F. columbarius is another small, but relatively robust, species. The Amur falcon F. amurensis and red-footed falcon F. vespertinus are Palaearctic species in which the male is mostly dark grey with red beak and feet. The hobbies (F. subbuteo, F. longipennis and related species) are slim falcons with particularly long, narrow wings that mostly catch prey on the wing.

<==Falco Linnaeus 1758CC10 (see below for synonymy)
    |--+--F. zoniventrisBKB15
    |  `--+--F. naumanniBKB15
    |     `--+--F. punctatusBKB15
    |        `--+--F. rupicoloidesBKB15 [=*Megacerchneis rupicoloidesCC10]
    |           `--+--+--F. araeaBKB15
    |              |  `--F. newtoniBKB15
    |              `--+--F. cenchroides Vigors & Horsfield 1827BKB15, CC10 [=Cerchneis cenchroidesCC10, Tinnunculus cenchroidesR87]
    |                 |    |--F. c. cenchroides (see below for synonymy)CC10
    |                 |    `--F. c. baruCC10
    |                 `--F. tinnunculus Linnaeus 1758BKB15, M02 (see below for synonymy)
    |                      |--F. t. tinnunculusVP89
    |                      |--F. t. interstictusVP89
    |                      `--F. t. saturatusVP89
    `--+--+--F. amurensisBKB15
       |  `--F. vespertinus Linnaeus 1766BKB15, M02
       `--+--+--F. dickinsoniBKB15
          |  `--+--F. deiroleucusBKB15
          |     `--+--F. longipennis Swainson 1837BKB15, WS48 (see below for synonymy)
          |        `--+--F. eleonoraeBKB15
          |           `--+--F. concolorBKB15
          |              `--+--F. cuvieriiBKB15
          |                 `--F. subbuteo Linnaeus 1758BKB15, M02 [=*Hypotriorchis subbuteoCC10]
          `--+--+--F. columbarius Linnaeus 1758BKB15, L58
             |  |    |--F. c. columbariusVP89
             |  |    `--F. c. insignisVP89
             |  `--F. sparverius Linnaeus 1758BKB15, L58 [=Cerchneis sparveriaS18, Tinnunculus sparveriusJ23]
             |       |--F. s. sparveriusHRS06
             |       `--F. s. fernandensis (Chapman 1915)HRS06
             `--+--+--F. novaeseelandiae Gmelin 1788BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                |  `--+--F. femoralisBKB15
                |     `--F. rufigularisBKB15
                `--+--+--F. berigora Vigors & Horsfield 1827BKB15, WS48 [=*Ieracidea berigoraCC10]
                   |  |    |--F. b. berigora [incl. Ieracidea occidentalis Gould 1844]WS48
                   |  |    `--F. b. centralia (Mathews 1916) [=Ieracidea berigora centralia]WS48
                   |  `--F. chicqueraBKB15
                   `--+--F. mexicanusBKB15
                      `--+--+--*F. peregrinus Tunstall 1771CC10, BKB15, M02 (see below for synonymy)
                         |  |    |--F. p. peregrinusWS48
                         |  |    |--F. p. anatum Bonaparte 1838S05
                         |  |    |--F. p. fruitii Momiyama 1927I92
                         |  |    |--F. p. harterti Buturlin 1907I92
                         |  |    |--F. p. japonensis Gmelin 1788I92
                         |  |    |--F. p. macropus Swainson 1837 [incl. F. peregrinus submelanogenys Mathews 1912]WS48
                         |  |    |--F. p. pealei Ridgway 1874I92
                         |  |    `--F. p. tundriusUSDI77
                         |  `--F. pelegrinoidesBKB15
                         `--+--F. cherrug Gray 1844BKB15, M02 [incl. F. antiquus Mourer-Chauviré 1975M02]
                            |--+--F. biarmicusBKB15
                            |  `--F. rusticolus Linnaeus 1758BKB15, M02 [=Hierofalco rusticolusS05]
                            |       |--F. r. rusticolus [incl. Hierofalco gyrfalco sacer Nelson 1883]S05
                            |       |--F. r. gyrfalco Linnaeus 1758 (see below for synonymy)S05
                            |       |--‘Hierofalco’ r. holboelli (Sharpe 1873) [=Falco holboelli]S05
                            |       `--F. r. obsoletus Stejneger 1885 [=Hierofalco rusticolus obsoletus]S05
                            `--+--F. juggerBKB15
                               `--F. subniger Gray 1843BKB15, CC10 [=*Notofalco subnigerCC10]
Falco incertae sedis:
  ‘Tinnunculus’ alaudariusB66
  F. albigularisS18
  F. alopexJT12
  F. ardosiaceusJT12
  F. bakalovi Boev 1999M02
  F. barbarus Linnaeus 1758L58
  F. cachinnans Linnaeus 1758L58
  F. caerulescens Linnaeus 1758L58
  F. canadensis Linnaeus 1758L58
  F. duboisiHSS13
  F. fasciinuchaJT12
  F. forficatus Linnaeus 1758L58
  F. hypoleucos Gould 1840WS48 [=*Palifalco hypoleucosCC10]
  F. kreyenborgiFP64
  F. lanarius Linnaeus 1758L58
  F. lineatusJ23
  F. lunulatusR87
  F. medius Umans’ka 1981M02
  F. melanaetus Linnaeus 1758L58
  F. melanogenys [=F. peregrinus melanogenys]S13
  F. merillus Gerini 1767 [incl. F. aesalon Swainson & Richardson 1831, F. regulus Sharpe 1874]S05
  F. missisippiensisJ23
  F. moluccensisJT12
    |--F. m. moluccensisJ06
    `--F. m. microbaliaJ06
  ‘Hieracidea’ orientalisR87
  F. rupicolusCC10 [=*Cerchneis rupicolusCC10, Tinnunculus rupicolaScl66]
  F. severusJT12
  F. sufflator Linnaeus 1758L58

Falco Linnaeus 1758CC10 [=Rhynchodon Nitzsch 1829CC10; incl. Cerchneis Boie 1826CC10, Harpa Sharpe 1874 non Röding 1798CC10, Harpe Bonaparte 1855 non Lacépède 1802CC10, Hypotriorchis Boie 1826CC10, Hieracidea Strickland 1841CC10, Ieracidea Gould 1838CC10, Megacerchneis Roberts 1922CC10, Nesierax Oberholser 1899CC10, Notofalco Mathews 1913CC10, Palifalco Mathews 1946CC10, Tinnunculus Vieillot 1807B94]

Falco cenchroides cenchroides Vigors & Horsfield 1827 [incl. Cerchneis immaculata Brehm 1845, C. cenchroides milligani Mathews 1912 WS48, C. unicolor Milligan 1904]CC10

Falco longipennis Swainson 1837BKB15, WS48 [incl. F. lunulatus murchisonianus Mathews 1912WS48, F. longipennis murchisonianusM03]

Falco novaeseelandiae Gmelin 1788BKB15, CC10 [=Cerchneis novaezealandiaeCC10, *Harpe novaeseelandiaeCC10, *Harpe novaezealandiaeCC10, Hieracidea novaezealandiaeCC10, Hypotriorchis novaezealandiaeCC10, Ieracidea novaezealandiaeCC10, *Nesierax novaeseelandiaeCC10, *Nesierax (*Harpa) novaezealandiaeCC10, Teracidea (l. c.) novazealandiaeCC10; incl. Falco australis Hombron & Jacquinot 1841 non Gmelin 1788CC10, Harpa australisCC10, Nesierax australisCC10, Falco brunnea Gould 1838 non F. brunneus Bechstein 1805CC10, F. brunneus Gould 1838 non F. brunneus Bechstein 1805CC10, Hieracidea brunneaCC10, F. ferox Peale 1848CC10, F. harpe Gray in Dieffenbach 1843CC10, Nesierax pottsi Mathews & Iredale 1913CC10]

*Falco peregrinus Tunstall 1771CC10, JT12, M02 [=*Rhynchodon peregrinusCC10; incl. F. communis Sharpe 1874S05, F. radamaSch66]

Falco rusticolus gyrfalco Linnaeus 1758 [=F. candicans gyrfalco, Hierofalco rusticolus gyrfalco; incl. F. arcticus Bessels 1879, F. candicans Reinhardt 1861, F. gyrfalco candicans, Hierofalco candicans]S05

Falco tinnunculus Linnaeus 1758BKB15, M02 [incl. F. tinnunculus atavus Jánossy 1972M02, F. brunneus Bechstein 1805CC10]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[B66] Bulger, G. E. 1866. List of birds observed at Wellington, Neilgherry Hills, about 6000 feet above the level of the sea, during the months of April and May, 1866. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 568–571.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[HRS06] Hahn, I., U. Römer & R. P. Schlatter. 2006. Population numbers and status of land birds of the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile (Aves: Falconiformes, Columbiformes, Strigiformes, Caprimulgiformes, Passeriformes). Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (1): 109–125.

[HSS13] Hirschfeld, E., A. Swash & R. Still. 2013. The World’s Rarest Birds. Princeton University Press: Princeton (New Jersey).

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[J23] James, E. 1823. Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, performed in the years 1819 and ’20, by order of the Hon. J. C. Calhoun, sec’y of war: under the command of Major Stephen H. Long. From the notes of Major Long, Mr. T. Say, and other gentlemen of the exploring party vol. 1. H. C. Carey & I. Lea: Philadelphia.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[J06] Johnstone, R. E. 2006. The birds of Gag Island, Western Papuan islands, Indonesia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 23 (2): 115–132.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[M03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

[R87] Ramsay, E. P. 1887. List of Western Australian birds collected by Mr. Cairn, and Mr. W. H. Boyer-Bower, at Derby and its vicinity, with remarks on the species. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1085–1100.

[S13] Sarasin, F. 1913. Die Vögel Neu-Caledoniens und der Loyalty-Inseln. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 1 pp. 1–78, pls 1–3. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[S05] Schalow, H. 1905. Die Vögel der Arktis. In: Römer, F., & F. Schaudinn (eds) Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenstellun der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pp. 79–288. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[Sch66] Schlegel, H. 1866. Communication from, on mammals and birds collected in Madagascar. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 419–426.

[Scl66] Sclater, P. L. 1866. Report on birds collected at Windvogelberg, South Africa, by Capt. G. E. Bulger, C. M. Z. S. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 21–23.

[S18] Stone, W. 1918. Birds of the Panama Canal Zone, with special reference to a collection made by Mr. Lindsey L. Jewel. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 239–280.

[USDI77] USDI (United States Department of the Interior). 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants—republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420–36431.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M., & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1–126.

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