Eudendrium racemosum, copyright Peter Schuchert.

Belongs within: Medusozoa.
Contains: Hydractinioidea.

The Filifera are a group of hydrozoans characterised by the possession of filiform tentacles on the feeding polyps, together with desmoneme and eurytele nematocysts (Daly et al. 2007).

    |–Eudendriidae [Eudendriida, Eudendrioidea] P79
    |    |–Myrionema Pictet 1893 P79
    |    |    `–M. amboinense T87
    |    `–Eudendrium Ehrenberg 1834 P79
    |         |–E. arbusculum KM17
    |         |–E. armatum PP64
    |         |–E. capillare Alder 1856 VV77
    |         |–E. carneum Clarke 1882 HJ08
    |         |–E. dispar A64
    |         |–E. glomeratum LS09
    |         |–E. racemosum [=Sertularia racemosa] A64
    |         `–E. vaginatum A64
    `–Pandeida P79
         |–Pandeoidea P79
         |    |–Niobia Mayer 1900 [Niobiidae] P79
         |    `–+–Calycopsis BP00 [Calycopsidae P79]
         |       |    `–C. simplex Kramp & Damas 1925 BP00
         |       `–+–Protiara Haeckel 1879 [Protiaridae] P79
         |          `–Pandeidae P79
         |               |–Halitiara Fewkes 1882 P79
         |               |–Paratiara Kramp & Damas 1925 P79
         |               |–Cnidotiara Uchida 1927 P79
         |               `–Leuckartiara BP00
         |                    |–L. brownei Larson & Harbison 1990 BP00
         |                    `–L. octona PP64
         `–+–Bougainvillioidea P79
            |    |–Russelliidae P79
            |    `–+–Perarella DB07 [Cytaeididae P79]
            |       `–Bougainvilliidae P79
            |            |–Clavopsella Stechow 1919 P79
            |            |–Silhouetta Millard & Bouillon 1973 P79
            |            |–Koellikerina Kramp 1939 P79
            |            |–Bimeria Wright 1859 P79
            |            |    `–B. nutans A64
            |            |–Rhizorhagium DB07
            |            |–Velkovrhia Matjašič & Sket 1971 CS-P86
            |            |    `–V. enigmatica Matjašič & Sket 1971 CS-P86
            |            `–Bougainvillia KBC03
            |                 |–B. macloviana PO99
            |                 |–B. muscus LS09
            |                 |–B. ramosa KBC03
            |                 `–B. superciliaris B26
            `–Hydractinioidea P79

Filifera incertae sedis:
  Australomedusidae DB07
  Balella Stechow 1919 P79 [Balellidae DB07]
  Bythotiaridae DB07
  Clathrozoellidae DB07
  Eucodoniidae DB07
  Fabienna [Laingiidae, Laingiomedusae] DB07
    `–F. sphaerica DB07
  Oceanidae DB07
    |–Crucimedusina walcotti (Barbour 1914) NS93
    |–Oceania A64
    |    |–O. armata A64
    |    |–O. cymbaloidea G20
    |    |–O. octona A64
    |    `–O. turrita A64
    `—Turritopsis nutricula A64
  Proboscidactyla S79 [Proboscidactylidae DB07]
    `–P. mutabilis PO99
  Trichydridae DB07
  Podocoryne LS09
    |–P. borealis PO99
    |–P. carnea PP15
    |–P. exigua LS09
    |–P. minuta PO99
    `–P. proboscidea PP64

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A64] Allman, G. J. 1864. Report on the present state of our knowledge of the reproductive system in the Hydroida. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 351–426.

[B26] Bigelow, H. B. 1926. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 40 (2): 1–509.

[BP00] Bouillon, J., F. Pagès, J.-M. Gili, A. Palanques, P. Puig & S. Heussner. 2000. Deep-water hydromedusae from the Lacaze-Duthiers submarine canyon (Banyuls, northwestern Mediterranean) and description of two new genera, Guillea and Parateclaia. Scientia Marina 64 (Suppl. 1): 87–95.

[CS-P86] Clausen, C., & L. v. Salvini-Plawen. 1986. Cnidaria. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 33–42. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[DB07] Daly, M., M. R. Brugler, P. Cartwright, A. G. Collins, M. N. Dawson, D. G. Fautin, S. C. France, C. S. McFadden, D. M. Opresko, E. Rodriguez, S. L. Romano & J. L. Stake. 2007. The phylum Cnidaria: a review of phylogenetic patterns and diversity 300 years after Linnaeus. Zootaxa 1668: 127–182.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[HJ08] Huisman, J. M., D. S. Jones, F. E. Wells & T. Burton. 2008. Introduced marine biota in Western Australian waters. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 1–44.

[KBC03] Kashin, I. A., E. V. Bagaveeva & S. F. Chaplygina. 2003. Fouling communities of hydrotechnical constructions in Nakhodka Bay (Sea of Japan). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29: 267–283.

[KM17] Korshunova, T., A. Martynov, T. Bakken, J. Evertsen, K. Fletcher, I. W. Mudianta, H. Saito, K. Lundin, M. Schrödl & B. Picton. 2017. Polyphyly of the traditional family Flabellinidae affects a major group of Nudibranchia: aeolidacean taxonomic reassessment with descriptions of several new families, genera, and species (Mollusca, Gastropoda). ZooKeys 717: 1–139.

[LS09] Leclère, L., P. Schuchert, C. Cruaud, A. Couloux & M. Manuel. 2009. Molecular phylogenetics of Thecata (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria) reveals long-term maintenance of life history traits despite high frequency of recent character changes. Systematic Biology 58 (5): 509–526.

[NS93] Nudds, J. R., & J. J. Sepkoski Jr. 1993. Coelenterata. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 101–124. Chapman & Hall: London.

[PO99] Pagès, F., & C. Orejas. 1999. Medusae, siphonophores and ctenophores of the Magellan region. Scientia Marina 63 (Suppl. 1): 51–57.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[P79] Petersen, K. W. 1979. Development of coloniality in Hydrozoa. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 105–139. Academic Press: London.

[PP15] Pisani, D., W. Pett, M. Dohrmann, R. Feuda, O. Rota-Stabelli, H. Philippe, N. Lartillot & G. Wörheide. 2015. Genomic data do not support comb jellies as the sister group to all other animals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 112 (50): 15402–15407.

[S79] Shelton, G. A. B. 1979. Co-ordination of behaviour in cnidarian colonies. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 141–154. Academic Press: London.

[T87] Trench, R. K. 1987. Dinoflagellates in non-parasitic symbioses. In: Taylor, F. J. R. (ed.) The Biology of Dinoflagellates pp. 530–570. Blackwell Scientific.

[VV77] Vervoort, W., & P. Vasseur. 1977. Hydroids from French Polynesia with notes on distribution and ecology. Zoologische Verhandelingen 159: 1–98.

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