Eudendrium racemosum, copyright Peter Schuchert.

Belongs within: Medusozoa.
Contains: Hydractinioidea.

The Filifera are a group of hydrozoans characterised by the possession of filiform tentacles on the feeding polyps, together with desmoneme and eurytele nematocysts (Daly et al. 2007).

|--Eudendriidae [Eudendriida, Eudendrioidea]P79
| |--Myrionema Pictet 1893 non Greville 1827P79
| | `--M. amboinenseT87
| `--Eudendrium Ehrenberg 1834P79
| |--E. arbusculumKM17
| |--E. armatumPP64
| |--E. capillare Alder 1856VV77
| |--E. carneum Clarke 1882HJ08
| |--E. disparA64
| |--E. glomeratumLS09
| |--E. racemosum [=Sertularia racemosa]A64
| `--E. vaginatumA64
| |--Niobia Mayer 1900 [Niobiidae]P79
| `--+--CalycopsisBP00 [CalycopsidaeP79]
| | `--C. simplex Kramp & Damas 1925BP00
| `--+--Protiara Haeckel 1879 [Protiaridae]P79
| `--PandeidaeP79
| |--Halitiara Fewkes 1882P79
| |--Paratiara Kramp & Damas 1925P79
| |--Cnidotiara Uchida 1927P79
| `--LeuckartiaraBP00
| |--L. brownei Larson & Harbison 1990BP00
| `--L. octonaPP64
`--+--PerarellaDB07 [CytaeididaeP79]
|--Clavopsella Stechow 1919P79
|--Silhouetta Millard & Bouillon 1973P79
|--Koellikerina Kramp 1939P79
|--Bimeria Wright 1859P79
| `--B. nutansA64
|--Velkovrhia Matjašič & Sket 1971CS-P86
| `--V. enigmatica Matjašič & Sket 1971CS-P86
|--B. britannicaG90
|--B. fulvaG90
|--B. maclovianaPO99
|--B. muscusLS09
|--B. proliferaG90
|--B. ramosaKBC03
`--B. superciliarisB26

Filifera incertae sedis:
Balella Stechow 1919P79 [BalellidaeDB07]
Fabienna [Laingiidae, Laingiomedusae]DB07
`--F. sphaericaDB07
|--Crucimedusina walcotti (Barbour 1914)NS93
|---Turritopsis nutriculaA64
|--O. armataA64
|--O. cymbaloideaG20
|--O. flavidulaR26
|--O. gibbosaR26
|--O. lesueuriaR26
|--O. lineolataR26
|--O. octonaA64
|--O. paradoxaR26
|--O. pileataR26
`--O. turritaA64
ProboscidactylaS79 [ProboscidactylidaeDB07]
`--P. mutabilisPO99
|--P. borealisPO99
|--P. carneaPP15
|--P. exiguaLS09
|--P. minutaPO99
`--P. proboscideaPP64

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A64] Allman, G. J. 1864. Report on the present state of our knowledge of the reproductive system in the Hydroida. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 351–426.

[B26] Bigelow, H. B. 1926. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 40 (2): 1–509.

[BP00] Bouillon, J., F. Pagès, J.-M. Gili, A. Palanques, P. Puig & S. Heussner. 2000. Deep-water hydromedusae from the Lacaze-Duthiers submarine canyon (Banyuls, northwestern Mediterranean) and description of two new genera, Guillea and Parateclaia. Scientia Marina 64 (Suppl. 1): 87–95.

[CS-P86] Clausen, C., & L. v. Salvini-Plawen. 1986. Cnidaria. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 33–42. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[DB07] Daly, M., M. R. Brugler, P. Cartwright, A. G. Collins, M. N. Dawson, D. G. Fautin, S. C. France, C. S. McFadden, D. M. Opresko, E. Rodriguez, S. L. Romano & J. L. Stake. 2007. The phylum Cnidaria: a review of phylogenetic patterns and diversity 300 years after Linnaeus. Zootaxa 1668: 127–182.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[G90] Goy, J. 1990. Preliminary observations on the zooplankton of Shark Bay, Western Australia, with emphasis on medusae and description of a new rhizostome jellyfish (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa). In: Berry, P. F., S. D. Bradshaw & B. R. Wilson (eds) Research in Shark Bay: Report of the France-Australe Bicentenary Expedition Committee pp. 107–113. Western Australian Museum.

[HJ08] Huisman, J. M., D. S. Jones, F. E. Wells & T. Burton. 2008. Introduced marine biota in Western Australian waters. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 1–44.

[KBC03] Kashin, I. A., E. V. Bagaveeva & S. F. Chaplygina. 2003. Fouling communities of hydrotechnical constructions in Nakhodka Bay (Sea of Japan). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29: 267–283.

[KM17] Korshunova, T., A. Martynov, T. Bakken, J. Evertsen, K. Fletcher, I. W. Mudianta, H. Saito, K. Lundin, M. Schrödl & B. Picton. 2017. Polyphyly of the traditional family Flabellinidae affects a major group of Nudibranchia: aeolidacean taxonomic reassessment with descriptions of several new families, genera, and species (Mollusca, Gastropoda). ZooKeys 717: 1–139.

[LS09] Leclère, L., P. Schuchert, C. Cruaud, A. Couloux & M. Manuel. 2009. Molecular phylogenetics of Thecata (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria) reveals long-term maintenance of life history traits despite high frequency of recent character changes. Systematic Biology 58 (5): 509–526.

[NS93] Nudds, J. R., & J. J. Sepkoski Jr. 1993. Coelenterata. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 101–124. Chapman & Hall: London.

[PO99] Pagès, F., & C. Orejas. 1999. Medusae, siphonophores and ctenophores of the Magellan region. Scientia Marina 63 (Suppl. 1): 51–57.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[P79] Petersen, K. W. 1979. Development of coloniality in Hydrozoa. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 105–139. Academic Press: London.

[PP15] Pisani, D., W. Pett, M. Dohrmann, R. Feuda, O. Rota-Stabelli, H. Philippe, N. Lartillot & G. Wörheide. 2015. Genomic data do not support comb jellies as the sister group to all other animals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 112 (50): 15402–15407.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[S79] Shelton, G. A. B. 1979. Co-ordination of behaviour in cnidarian colonies. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 141–154. Academic Press: London.

[T87] Trench, R. K. 1987. Dinoflagellates in non-parasitic symbioses. In: Taylor, F. J. R. (ed.) The Biology of Dinoflagellates pp. 530–570. Blackwell Scientific.

[VV77] Vervoort, W., & P. Vasseur. 1977. Hydroids from French Polynesia with notes on distribution and ecology. Zoologische Verhandelingen 159: 1–98.

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