Firmicutes

Vegetative cells of Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans, from Spring et al. (2009).

Belongs within: Terrabacteria.
Contains: Halanaerobiia, Thermoanaerobacteria, Bacilli, Selenobacteria, Veillonellaceae, Clostridium, Desulfotomaculia, Syntrophomonadaceae, Heliobacteriaceae.

The Firmicutes are mostly Gram-positive bacteria with a low DNA mol% G + C content (Garrity & Holt 2001a). Representatives include the Peptococcaceae, obligately anaerobic bacteria found in a variety of habitats such as in association with human or animal tissue, or in soils.

Firmicutes [Clostridea, Clostridia, Endospora, Moorellia, Teichobacteria]
    |  i. s.: ThermoacetogeniumMK03
    |         Acetoanaerobium noteraeGH01a, D92
    |         OscillospiraGH01a
    |         Syntrophococcus sucromutansGH01a, S92
    |--+--HalanaerobiiaCD21
    |  `--Limnochorda [Limnochordaceae, Limnochordales, Limnochordia]CD21
    |       `--L. pilosaCD21
    `--+--+--Sulfobacillus [Sulfobacillaceae, Sulfobacillales, Sulfobacillia]CD21
       |  |    |--+--S. acidophilusDC03
       |  |    |  `--‘S. yellowstonensis’DC03
       |  |    `--+--‘S. ambivalens’DC03
       |  |       `--‘S. monserratensis’DC03
       |  `--+--SymbiobacteriumWK13 [Symbiobacteriales, SymbiobacteriiaCD21]
       |     |    `--S. thermophilumWK13
       |     `--Thermaerobacter [Thermaerobacteraceae, Thermaerobacterales, Thermaerobacteria]CD21
       |          |--T. composti Yabe et al. 2010IJSEM10a
       |          `--T. marianensisCD21
       `--+--+--+--ThermoanaerobacteriaCD21
          |  |  `--Tepidanaerobacter [Tepidanaerobacteraceae, Thermovenabulales, Thermovenabulia]CD21
          |  |       `--T. syntrophicusCD21
          |  `--+--BacilliCD21
          |     `--+--Anaerobranca [Proteinivoraceae, Proteinivoracales]CD21
          |        |    `--A. gottschalkii Prowe & Antranikian 2001JC08
          |        `--+--Dethiobacter [Dethiobacteraceae, Dethiobacterales, Dethiobacteria]CD21
          |           |    `--D. alkaliphilusCD21
          |           `--Natranaerobius [Natranaerobiaceae, Natranaerobiales, Natranaerobiia]CD21
          |                |--N. thermophilusWK13
          |                `--N. trueperiCD21
          `--+--+--+--SelenobacteriaCD21
             |  |  `--+--VeillonellaceaePHK96
             |  |     `--AcidaminococcaceaeDMW03
             |  |          |  i. s.: AcetonemaGH01a
             |  |          |         AnaeromusaGH01a
             |  |          |         Quinella ovalisGH01a, GH01b
             |  |          |         SucciniclasticumGH01a
             |  |          |--+--Acidaminococcus fermentansLHA02
             |  |          |  `--Phascolarctobacterium faeciumLHA02
             |  |          `--Dialister (ex Bergey et al. 1923) Moore & Moore 1994WK13, DMW03
             |  |               |--*D. pneumosintes (Olitsky & Gates) Moore & Moore 1994 (see below for synonymy)DMW03
             |  |               `--D. invisus Downes, Munson & Wade 2003DMW03
             |  `--+--Candidatus Alkaliphilus metalliredigensWK13
             |     `--+--AerococcaceaeGH01a
             |        |    |--Aerococcus Williams et al. 1953AL IJSEM10b
             |        |    |--Abiotrophia defectivaWK13
             |        |    |--DolosicoccusGH01a
             |        |    |--EremococcusGH01a
             |        |    |--FacklamiaGH01a
             |        |    |--GlobicatellaGH01a
             |        |    `--IgnavigranumGH01a
             |        `--Clostridiaceae [Clostridiales]GH01a
             |             |--ClostridiumWK13
             |             |--Acetivibrio cellulolyticusGH01a, S92
             |             |--Acidaminobacter hydrogenoformansGH01a, PH03
             |             |--AnaerobacterGH01a
             |             |--Caloramator fervidusGH01a, PK03
             |             |--NatronincolaGH01a
             |             |--Oxobacter pfennigiiGH01a, PK03
             |             |--SporobacterGH01a
             |             |--ThermobrachiumGH01a
             |             `--Soehningia Parshina, Kleerebezem et al. 2003PK03
             |                  `--*S. saccharolytica Parshina, Kleerebezem et al. 2003PK03
             `--+--+--‘Clostridium’ aerotoleransPK03
                |  `--‘Clostridium’ xylanolyticumPK03
                `--+--+--‘Clostridium’ amygdalinum Parshina, Kleerebezem et al. 2003PK03
                   |  `--‘Clostridium’ saccharolyticumPK03
                   `--+--+--‘Clostridium’ indolisPK03
                      |  `--‘Clostridium’ methoxybenzovoransPK03
                      `--+--‘Clostridium’ celerecrescensPK03
                         `--+--‘Clostridium’ sphenoidesPK03
                            `--+--+--DesulfotomaculiaCD21
                               |  `--ThermincoliaCD21
                               |       |--Carboxydocella [Carboxydocellaceae, Carboxydocellales]CD21
                               |       |    `--C. thermautotrophicaCD21
                               |       `--Thermincola [Thermincolaceae, Thermincolales]CD21
                               |            `--T. ferriaceticaCD21
                               `--+--+--Moorella [Moorellaceae, Moorellales]CD21
                                  |  |    |--M. humiferreaCD21
                                  |  |    `--M. thermoaceticaWK13 [=Clostridium thermaceticumPK03]
                                  |  `--SyntrophomonadiaCD21
                                  |       |--Thermacetogenium [Thermacetogeniaceae, Thermacetogeniales]CD21
                                  |       |    `--T. phaeumCD21
                                  |       `--SyntrophomonadalesCD21
                                  |            |--SyntrophomonadaceaeWK13
                                  |            `--Syntrophothermus [Syntrophothermaceae]CD21
                                  |                 `--S. lipocalidusCD21
                                  `--+--+--DehalobacterGH01a [DehalobacteriiaCD21]
                                     |  `--Peptococcaceae [Peptococcales, Peptococcia]CD21
                                     |       |--Peptococcus nigerGH01a, PF99
                                     |       |--AnaeroarcusGH01a
                                     |       |--AnaerosinusGH01a
                                     |       |--AnaerovibrioGH01a
                                     |       |--DendrosporobacterGH01a
                                     |       |--DesulfonisporaGH01a
                                     |       |--SuccinispiraGH01a
                                     |       |--SyntrophobotulusGH01a
                                     |       `--ThermoterrabacteriumGH01a
                                     `--+--Desulfitibacter [Desulfitibacteraceae, Desulfitibacterales]CD21
                                        |    `--D. alkalitoleransCD21
                                        `--DesulfitobacteriiaCD21
                                             |--HeliobacteriaceaeCD21
                                             `--Desulfitobacteriaceae [Desulfitobacteriales]CD21
                                                  |--Desulfosporosinus orientisCD21, MK03
                                                  `--DesulfitobacteriumGH01a
                                                       |--D. chlororespirans Sanford et al. 2001JC08
                                                       |--D. dehalogenansMK03
                                                       |--D. hafnienseWK13
                                                       `--D. metallireducens Finneran et al. 2002JC08

*Dialister pneumosintes (Olitsky & Gates) Moore & Moore 1994 [=Bacterium pneumosintes Olitsky & Gates 1921, Bacteroides pneumosintes]DMW03

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[CD21] Coleman, G. A., A. A. Davín, T. A. Mahendrarajah, L. L. Szánthó, A. Spang, P. Hugenholtz, G. J. Szöllősi & T. A. Williams. 2021. A rooted phylogeny resolves early bacterial evolution. Science 372: 588.

[D92] Diekert, G. 1992. The acetogenic bacteria. In: Balows, A., H. G. Trüper, M. Dworkin, W. Harder & K.-H. Schleifer (eds) The Prokaryotes: A handbook on the biology of bacteria: Ecophysiology, isolation, identification, applications 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 517–533. Springer-Verlag: New York.

[DMW03] Downes, J., M. Munson & W. G. Wade. 2003. Dialister invisus sp. nov., isolated from the human oral cavity. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 1937–1940.

[DC03] Duan, Y. P., H. F. Castro, T. E. Hewlett, J. H. White & A. V. Ogram. 2003. Detection and characterization of Pasteuria 16S rRNA gene sequences from nematodes and soils. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 105–112.

[GH01a] Garrity, G. M., & J. G. Holt. 2001a. The road map to the Manual. In: Boone, D. R., R. W. Castenholz & G. M. Garrity (eds) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology 2nd ed. vol. 1. The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria pp. 119–166. Springer.

[GH01b] Garrity, G. M., & J. G. Holt. 2001b. Phylum BIX. Deferribacteres phy. nov. In: Boone, D. R., R. W. Castenholz & G. M. Garrity (eds) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology 2nd ed. vol. 1. The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria pp. 465–471. Springer.

[IJSEM10a] IJSEM. 2010a. Validation list no. 131. List of new names and new combinations previously effectively, but not validly, published. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 60 (1): 1–2.

[IJSEM10b] IJSEM. 2010b. Validation list no. 132. List of new names and new combinations previously effectively, but not validly, published. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 60: 469–472.

[JC08] Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. 2008. Status of strains that contravene Rules 27 (3) and 30 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Opinion 81. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 58: 1755–1763.

[LHA02] Lan, G. Q., Y. W. Ho & N. Abdullah. 2002. Mitsuokella jalaludinii sp. nov., from the rumens of cattle in Malaysia. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 52: 713–718.

[MK03] Mori, K., H. Kim, T. Kakegawa & S. Hanada. 2003. A novel lineage of sulfate-reducing microorganisms: Thermodesulfobiaceae fam. nov., Thermodesulfobium narugense, gen. nov., sp. nov., a new thermophilic isolate from a hot spring. Extremophiles 7: 283–290.

[PK03] Parshina, S. N., R. Kleerebezem, J. L. Sanz, G. Lettinga, A. N. Nozhevnikova, N. A. Kostrikina, A. M. Lysenko & A. J. M. Stams. 2003. Soehningia saccharolytica gen. nov., sp. nov. and Clostridium amygdalinum sp. nov., two novel anaerobic, benzaldehyde-converting bacteria. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 1791–1799.

[PF99] Philippe, H., & P. Forterre. 1999. The rooting of the universal tree of life is not reliable. Journal of Molecular Evolution 49: 509–523.

[PH03] Pikuta, E. V., R. B. Hoover, A. K. Bej, D. Marsic, E. N. Detkova, W. B. Whitman & P. Krader. 2003. Tindallia californiensis sp. nov., a new anaerobic haloalkaliphilic, spore-forming acetogen isolated from Mono Lake in California. Extremophiles 7: 327–334.

[PHK96] Prescott, L. M., J. P. Harley & D. A. Klein. 1996. Microbiology 3rd ed. Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[S92] Schink, B. 1992. Syntrophism among prokaryotes. In: Balows, A., H. G. Trüper, M. Dworkin, W. Harder & K.-H. Schleifer (eds) The Prokaryotes: A handbook on the biology of bacteria: Ecophysiology, isolation, identification, applications 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 276–299. Springer-Verlag: New York.

[WK13] Williams, K. P., & D. P. Kelly. 2013. Proposal for a new class within the phylum Proteobacteria, Acidithiobacillia classis nov., with the type order Acidithiobacillales, and emended description of the class Gammaproteobacteria. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 63 (8): 2901–2906.

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