Fissidens adianthoides, photographed by Kristian Peters.

Belongs within: Dicranideae.
Contains: Fissidens section Fissidens, Fissidens section Serridium.

Fissidentaceae is a family of mosses distinguished by the arrangement of the leaves, in two rows on opposite sides of the stem and overlapping at the base. Members of the genus Nanobryum were previously classified into a separate family, but are now regarded as reduced relatives of Fissidens. Octodiceras julianum is an aquatic species with floating stems found in Europe (Dixon 1924).

Characters (from Pursell 2007): Plants tiny to robust. Stem, except for initial stages, growing from a 2-sided apical cell. Leaves distichous, equitant, complex in form, consisting of two vaginant laminae that clasp the stem, a ventral lamina located above the vaginant laminae, and a dorsal lamina that occupies the length of the leaf opposite the vaginant and ventral laminae; costa single, usually well developed, near center of leaf, sometimes reduced, absent or nearly so. Seta elongate. Capsule cylindric, peristome single, teeth 16, haplolepidous, endostomate, usually divided ½–⅔ their length, sometimes irregularly divided or undivided, sometimes reduced, rarely absent. Calyptra cucullate.

<==Fissidentaceae [Fissidentales, Fissidentineae]
    |--Moenkemeyera Müll.Hal. 1886SK02
    |--Octodiceras Brid. 1806S04 [=Fissidens subg. Octodiceras (Brid.) Broth. in Engl. & Prantl 1901OZB-O03]
    |    `--O. fontanum (Bach. Pyl.) Lindb. 1863S04 (see below for synonymy)
    |--Nanobryum Dixon 1922 [Nanobryaceae]SK02
    |    `--N. thorsbornei Stone 1982 [=Fissidens thorsbornei (Stone) Brugg.-Nann. & Berendsen 1988]SK02
    `--Fissidens Hedw. 1801SK02
         |  i. s.: F. aeruginosus [incl. F. linearis var. angustifolium]SK02
         |         F. ampliretis (Müll.Hal.) Broth. 1901 [=Conomitrium amplirete]SK02
         |         F. anisophyllusSK02
         |         F. arcuatusSK02
         |         F. asplenioides Hedw. 1801 [incl. F. ligulatus, Conomitrium ligulatum]SK02
         |         F. autoicus Thér. & Broth. 1916 [incl. F. cairnensis Broth. & Watts 1918]SK02
         |         F. badyinbarus Stone & Catches. 1993SK02
         |         F. becketii Mitt. 1873 [incl. F. calodictyon Broth. 1891]SK02
         |         F. berteri (Montagne) Müll.Hal. 1848 (see below for synonymy)SK02
         |         F. biformis Mitt. 1859SK02
         |         F. bifrons Schimp. ex Müll.Hal. 1859 [incl. F. bryoidioides Broth. 1916]SK02
         |         F. bogoriensis Fleischer 1904 [incl. F. altisetus Dixon 1930]SK02
         |         F. borgenii Hampe 1870SK02
         |         F. brassii Bartram 1943SK02
         |           |--F. b. var. brassiiSK02
         |           `--F. b. var. hebetatus (Catches.) Stone 1994 [=F. hebetatus Catches. 1980]SK02
         |         F. cambewarrae Dixon 1942SK02
         |         F. ceylonensis Dozy & Molk. 1844 [incl. F. intromarginatulus Bartram 1954, F. subhumilis Catches. 1980]SK02
         |         F. consociatus Thér. 1910SK02
         |         F. crassinervis Sande Lac. 1872SK02
         |         F. crenulatus Mitt. 1859SK02
         |         F. crispulus Brid. 1819 [incl. F. kerianus Broth. 1895, F. zippelianus Dozy & Molk. 1854]SK02
         |         F. cucullatus Stone 1989 [incl. F. obtusoacuminatus Müll.Hal. 1901 (n. n.)]SK02
         |         F. cuspidiferus Dixon 1930SK02
         |         F. darwinianus Catches. & Stone 1988SK02
         |         F. dealbatus Hooker & Wilson 1854SK02
         |         F. delicatulus Ångström 1872SK02
         |         F. dietrichiae Müll.Hal. 1872 (see below for synonymy)SK02
         |         F. diversifolius Mitt. 1859SK02
         |         F. exsul Dixon 1910D24
         |         F. filicinusB57
         |         F. flabellulus Thwaites & Mitt. 1873SK02
         |           |--F. f. var. flabellulusSK02
         |           `--F. f. var. eachamensis Stone 1994SK02
         |         F. flaccidus Mitt. 1860 [incl. F. maceratus Mitt. 1882]SK02
         |         F. forsythii Broth. 1916SK02
         |         F. gardneri Mitt. 1869 [incl. F. microcladus Thwaites & Mitt. 1873]SK02
         |         F. glaucescens Hornsch. 1841 [incl. F. involvens, F. ovatus]SK02
         |         F. gymnocarpus Stone 1983SK02
         |         F. henryae Stone 1984 [incl. Moenkemeyera australiensis Dixon 1942]SK02
         |         F. hollianus Dozy & Molk. 1855SK02
         |         F. holstii Broth. 1894 [incl. F. kurandae Broth. & Watts 1918, F. subkurandae Bartram 1952]SK02
         |         F. homomallulus Müll.Hal. ex Dixon 1950SK02
         |         F. hyalinus Hooker & Wilson 1840 [incl. F. nymanii Fleischer 1904]SK02
         |         F. inaequiretis Stone 1989SK02
         |         F. integerrimus Mitt. 1859 [incl. F. hunteri Willis 1951, F. tasmanicus]SK02
         |         F. involutus Wilson ex Mitt. 1859SG07
         |         F. leptocladus Müll.Hal. ex Rodway 1913 (see below for synonymy)SK02
         |         F. linearis Brid. 1819SK02
         |           |--F. l. var. linearis (see below for synonymy)SK02
         |           `--F. l. var. obscurirete (Broth.) Stone 1991 (see below for synonymy)SK02
         |         F. mangarevensisB57
         |         F. megalotis Schimp. ex Müll.Hal. 1858 [incl. F. vittatus Hooker & Wilson 1859]SK02
         |         F. oblatus Stone & Catches. 1993SK02
         |         F. oblongifolius Hooker & Wilson 1844SK02
         |           |--F. o. var. oblongifolius [incl. F. woollsianus Müll.Hal. 1901 (n. n.)]SK02
         |           |--F. o. var. hyophilus (Mitt.) Beever & Stone 1998 (see below for synonymy)SK02
         |           |--F. o. var. longiligulatus (Broth. & Watts) Brugg.-Nann., Pursell & Iwats. 1994 (see below for synonymy)SK02
         |           `--F. o. var. palmerstonensis (Stone) Beever & Stone 1998 (see below for synonymy)SK02
         |         F. orrii [incl. F. tequendamensis]D24
         |         F. pacificusSK02
         |         F. pallidus Hooker & Wilson 1854SK02
         |           |--F. p. var. pallidus (see below for synonymy)SK02
         |           `--F. p. var. caniensis Stone 1994SK02
         |         F. patulifolius Dixon 1942SK02
         |         F. pauperrimusSK02
         |         F. pellucidus Hornsch. 1841 [incl. F. laxus Sull. & Lesq. 1859]SK02
         |         F. perangustus Broth. 1916SK02
         |         F. perobtusus Dixon 1930 [incl. F. traversii Stone 1983]SK02
         |         F. polypodioidesJ87
         |         F. pseudopallidus Stone 1987SK02
         |         F. punctulatus Sande Lac. 1872SK02
         |         F. pygmaeus Hornsch. 1841SK02
         |         F. repandaJ87
         |         F. rigidulus Hooker & Wilson 1854 [incl. F. macrostachys (nom. inv.), F. tortuosus Geh. & Hampe 1881]SK02
         |         F. robinsonii Broth. 1918DD05
         |         F. rupicola Paris & Broth. 1906SK02
         |         F. scabrisetusBW15
         |         F. scalarisSK02
         |         F. semiliretisJ87
         |         F. serratus Müll.Hal. 1847SK02
         |         F. splachnifolius Hornsch. 1841SK02
         |         F. splachnobryoides Broth. in Schum & Lanterb. 1900B05
         |         F. splachnoides Broth. 1893 [=Conomitrium splachnoides]SK02
         |         F. strictus Hooker & Wilson 1859SK02
         |         F. subpalmatus Muell. 1872B05
         |         F. (Semilimbidium) subscabrisetus Brotherus & Watts 1915BW15
         |         F. sufflatus Stone 1987SK02
         |         F. sylvaticus Griff. 1842 (see below for synonymy)B05
         |         F. taylorii Müll.Hal. 1848 [incl. F. sublimbatus Broth. 1902 (n. n.)]SK02
         |           |--F. t. var. taylorii (see below for synonymy)SK02
         |           |--F. t. var. epiphytus (Allison) Stone & Beever 1996 [=F. epiphytus Allison 1960]SK02
         |           |--F. t. var. floribundus (Wilson) Wijk & Margad. 1959 (n. d.) [=F. brevifolius var. floribundus]SK02
         |           |--F. t. var. gillianus (Catches. & Stone) Stone 1996 [=F. gillianus Catches. & Stone 1988]SK02
         |           `--F. t. var. sainsburianus Allison 1960 (see below for synonymy)SK02
         |         F. tenellus Hooker & Wilson 1854SK02
         |           |--F. t. var. tenellus (see below for synonymy)SK02
         |           `--F. t. var. australiensis (Jaeger) Beever & Stone 1999 (see below for synonymy)SK02
         |         F. terrae-reginae Bartram 1952SK02
         |         F. victorialis Mitt. 1882SK02
         |         F. vitiensisB57
         |         F. wattsii Broth. 1915SK02
         |         F. zollingeri Montagne 1845SK02
         |--F. sect. FissidensS04
         |--F. sect. Pycnothallia Müll. Hal. 1900S04
         |    `--F. curvatus Hornsch. 1841 [incl. F. algarvicus]S04
         |         |--F. c. var. curvatus (see below for synonymy)SK02
         |         `--F. c. var. inclinabilis (Müll.Hal. ex Dixon) Beever 1995 (see below for synonymy)SK02
         `--F. sect. SerridiumS04
Nomina nuda: Conomitrium equitans Müll.Hal. 1901 [=Fissidens equitans Watts & Whitel. 1902]SK02
             Conomitrium luehmannianum Müll.Hal. 1901 [=Fissidens luehmannianus Watts & Whitel. 1902]SK02
             Conomitrium novae-hollandiae Müll.Hal. 1901 [=Fissidens novae-hollandiae Hornsch. ex Watts & Whitel. 1902]SK02
             Conomitrium porosum Hampe 1901 [=Fissidens porosus Watts & Whitel. 1902]SK02
             Conomitrium semirufum Müll.Hal. 1901 [=Fissidens semirufus Watts & Whitel. 1902]SK02
             Conomitrium trachyphyllum Müll.Hal. 1901 [=Fissidens trachyphyllus Watts & Whitelegge 1902]SK02
             Fissidens alternifolius Watts & Whitel. 1902SK02
             Fissidens applanatus Müll.Hal. 1901SK02
             Fissidens archeri Mitt. 1882SK02
             Fissidens assimilis Müll.Hal. 1901SK02
             Fissidens chloroloma Broth. ex Burges 1932SK02
             Fissidens commutatus Müll.Hal. 1901SK02
             Fissidens cuspidicalyx Müll.Hal. 1901SK02
             Fissidens grandiretis Broth. ex Bailey 1890SK02
             Fissidens leptoloma Müll.Hal. 1901SK02
             Fissidens leptopelma Müll.Hal. 1880SK02
             Fissidens leuconeurus Müll.Hal. 1901SK02
             Fissidens liliputanobryoides Müll.Hal. 1901SK02
             Fissidens liliputanoincurvus Müll.Hal. 1901SK02
             Fissidens microblastus Broth. ex Watts 1900 [=F. montecolli Watts ex Watts & Whitel. 1902]SK02
             Fissidens microlecythis Müll.Hal. 1901SK02
             Fissidens dietrichiae f. minor Broth. ex Watts 1901SK02
             Fissidens novae-valesiae Watts & Whitel. 1902SK02
             Fissidens pulvinatulus Müll.Hal. 1901SK02
             Fissidens serratomarginatus Müll.Hal. 1901SK02
             Fissidens subapplanatus Müll.Hal. ex Muell. 1880SK02
             Fissidens pallidus f. virides Broth. ex Watts & Whitel. 1902SK02
             Fissidens walteri Müll.Hal. 1901SK02
             Fissidens whiteleggeanus Müll.Hal. 1901SK02

Fissidens berteri (Montagne) Müll.Hal. 1848 [incl. Conomitrium dillenii, F. dillenii; incl. C. muelleri, F. muelleri, Octodiceras muelleri]SK02

Fissidens curvatus Hornsch. 1841 var. curvatus [incl. F. aristatus Broth. 1916, F. bartramiocarpus (n. n.), F. incurvobryoides (nom. inv.), F. pungens Müll.Hal. & Hampe 1853, F. sordidevirens Broth. 1916, F. strictulus Müll.Hal. 1898, F. warningensis Broth. ex Burges 1932 (n. n.), F. wildii Broth. 1891]SK02

Fissidens curvatus var. inclinabilis (Müll.Hal. ex Dixon) Beever 1995 [incl. F. semilimbatus Müll.Hal. & Hampe 1853]SK02

Fissidens dietrichiae Müll.Hal. 1872 [incl. F. densifolius Broth. 1891 (n. n.), F. praemollis, F. sydneyensis (n. n.), F. undatodecurrens (n. n.), F. undulatodecurrens (l. c.)]SK02

Fissidens leptocladus Müll.Hal. ex Rodway 1913 [=F. rigidiusculus var. leptocladus (nom. illeg.); incl. F. amblyothalloides Broth. & Watts 1915, F. leptocladus var. cheesemanii Dixon 1923, F. pachyneuron Dixon 1950, F. rigidiusculus (preoc.)]SK02

Fissidens linearis Brid. 1819 var. linearis [incl. F. aeruginosus var. allisonii (Dixon & Sainsbury) Stone 1994, F. arcuatulus Broth. & Watts 1915, F. aeruginosus var. arcuatulus (Broth. & Watts) Stone 1990 (nom. illeg.), Conomitrium coarctatum (n. n.), F. coarctatus (n. n.), F. humilis Dixon & Watts 1916]SK02

Fissidens linearis var. obscurirete (Broth.) Stone 1991 [=F. aeruginosus var. obscurirete (Broth. & Paris) Stone 1990; incl. F. microhumilis Dixon 1942]SK02

Fissidens oblongifolius var. hyophilus (Mitt.) Beever & Stone 1998 [=F. hyophilus Mitt. 1882; incl. F. arboreus Broth. 1891]SK02

Fissidens oblongifolius var. longiligulatus (Broth. & Watts) Brugg.-Nann., Pursell & Iwats. 1994 [=F. longiligulatus Broth. & Watts 1915, F. hyophilus var. longiligulatus (Broth. & Watts) Stone 1990]SK02

Fissidens oblongifolius var. palmerstonensis (Stone) Beever & Stone 1998 [=F. hyophilus var. palmerstonensis Stone 1994]SK02

Fissidens pallidus Hooker & Wilson 1854 var. pallidus [incl. F. howeanus Broth. ex Whitel. 1893 (n. n.), F. punctatus (n. n.), F. whiteleggii]SK02

Fissidens sylvaticus Griff. 1842 [incl. F. teraicola Muell. 1872, F. sylvaticus var. teraicola (Muell.) Gangulee 1971]B05

Fissidens taylorii var. sainsburianus Allison 1960 [incl. F. brevifolius Hooker & Wilson 1854, F. elamellosus Müll.Hal. & Hampe 1856, F. clamellosus (l. c.), F. macrodus Hampe 1860, Sainsburia novae-zelandiae]SK02

Fissidens taylorii Müll.Hal. 1848 var. taylorii [incl. F. basilaris Hampe & Müll.Hal. 1853, F. nanopyxis Müll.Hal. 1901 (n. n.), F. sarcophyllus Burchard & Broth. 1896 (n. n.), F. sullivanii Müll.Hal. 1901 (n. n.), F. weymouthii Paris 1900 (n. n.)]SK02

Fissidens tenellus var. australiensis (Jaeger) Beever & Stone 1999 [=F. australiensis Jaeger 1869; incl. Conomitrium perpusillum, F. perpusillus]SK02

Fissidens tenellus Hooker & Wilson 1854 var. tenellus [incl. F. subtenellus Broth. & Watts 1915, F. tenelliformis Broth. & Watts 1915]SK02

Octodiceras fontanum (Bach. Pyl.) Lindb. 1863S04 [=Fissidens fontanus (Bach.Pyl.) Steud. 1824S04, SK02, Fi. viridulus var. fontanusD24, Skitophyllum fontanumOZB-O03; incl. Conomitrium julianumD24, Fissidens julianusOZB-O03, Fontinalis julianaD24, Octodiceras julianumS04]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B57] Bartram, E. B. 1957. Additional Fijian mosses, III. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (12): 392–396.

[B05] Bhattacharyya, P. K. 2005. Bryophyte flora of Barddhaman district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47: 11–42.

[BW15] Brotherus, V. F., & W. W. Watts. 1915. The mosses of the New Hebrides [part 1]. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 49 (1): 127–144.

[DD05] Daniels, A. E. D., & P. Daniels. 2005. Additions to the moss flora of the Indian mainland. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47: 93–100.

[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student’s Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[OZB-O03] Ochyra, R., J. Żarnowiec & H. Bednarek-Ochyra. 2003. Census Catalogue of Polish Mosses. Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences: Cracow.

Pursell, R. A. 2007. Fissidentaceae Schimper. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (eds) Flora of North America North of Mexico vol. 27 pp. 331–343. New York and Oxford.

[SG07] Singh, S. K., & J. P. Ghosh. 2007. Bryo-diversity in Indian Botanic Garden, Howrah, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 155–164.

[S04] Smith, A. J. E. 2004. The Moss Flora of Britain and Ireland 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

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