Fringillidae

 Brambling Fringilla montifringilla, photographed by Mark Gurney.

Belongs within: Passerida.
Contains: Carduelinae, Euphonia.

The Fringillidae, finches, are a family of mostly granivorous birds found in Eurasia, Africa and the Americas. Though often brownish or greenish in their base coloration, many fringillid finches are colorfully marked. Some tropical fringillids, the Neotropical genera Euphonia and Chlorophonia, and the Hawaiian honeycreepers of the Drepanidini, include particularly colorful species that have become frugivorous or nectarivorous rather than granivorous. Chlorophonia is a genus of mostly green birds with yellow underparts (Hilty 2011).

The chaffinches of the genus Fringilla, found in Eurasia and northern Africa, differ from the cardueline finches in their relatively short upper bills and lack of a crop; they also feed nestlings on insects rather than seeds. The brambling F. montifringilla is a northerly breeding species with a white rump and belly in both sexes, and a dark head and upperparts in the male.

<==Fringillidae [Fringilladae]
    |--+--CarduelinaeBKB15
    |  `--+--EuphoniaBKB15
    |     `--Chlorophonia Bonaparte 1851BKB15, H11
    |          |--C. callophrys (Cabanis 1861) [=Triglyphidia callophrys]H11
    |          |--C. cyanea (Thunberg 1822) [=Pipra cyanea]H11
    |          |    |--C. c. cyaneaH11
    |          |    |--C. c. frontalis (Sclater 1851)H11
    |          |    |--C. c. intensa Zimmer 1943H11
    |          |    |--C. c. longipennis (du Bus de Gisignies 1855)H11
    |          |    |--C. c. minuscula Hellmayr 1922H11
    |          |    |--C. c. psittacina Bangs 1902H11
    |          |    `--C. c. roraimae Salvin & Godman 1884H11
    |          |--C. flavirostris Sclater 1861 [incl. C. flavirostris boehmi, C. flavirostris minima]H11
    |          |--C. occipitalis (du Bus de Gisignies 1847) [=Euphonia occipitalis]H11
    |          `--C. pyrrhophrys (Sclater 1851) [=Euphonia pyrrhophrys]H11
    `--+--Carpospiza brachydactylaBKB15
       `--Fringilla Linnaeus 1758BKB15, CC10 [Fringillinae, Fringillini]
            |  i. s.: F. amandava Linnaeus 1758L58
            |         F. angolensis Linnaeus 1758L58
            |         F. brasiliana Linnaeus 1758L58
            |         F. butyracea Linnaeus 1758L58
            |         F. chinensis Linnaeus 1758L58
            |         F. chlorisG42a
            |         F. cyaneaG42b
            |         F. hudsoniaJ23
            |         F. leuconotaE42
            |         F. lulensis Linnaeus 1758L58
            |         F. melancholica Linnaeus 1758L58
            |         F. melba Linnaeus 1758L58
            |         F. pecora [=Emberiza pecora]J23
            |         F. socialisJ23
            |         F. sylvatica Linnaeus 1758L58
            |         F. trochanteria Giebel 1847M02
            |--F. montifringilla Linnaeus 1758BKB15, CC10
            `--+--*F. coelebs Linnaeus 1758CC10, BKB15, CC10 [=F. caelebs (l. c.)CC10]
               |    |--F. c. coelebsCC10
               |    `--F. c. gengleri Kleinschmidt 1909CC10
               `--F. teydeaBKB15
Fringillidae incertae sedis:
  Chaunoproctus ferreorostris (Vigors 1829)WBSJ82, I92
  Coturniculus peruanusSS66
  RhynchostruthusJT12
    |--R. louisaeJT12
    |--R. percivaliJT12
    `--R. socotranusJT12
  Neospiza concolorJT12
  Callacanthis burtoniJT12
  Zamelodia ludovicianaS18
  Astragalinus psaltriaS18
    |--A. p. psaltriaS18
    `--A. p. croceusS18

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[E42] Ewer, W. 1842. List of a collection of birds from India. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 10: 91–93.

[G42a] Gulliver, G. 1842a. Observations on the muscular fibres of the oesophagus and heart in some of the vertebrate animals. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 10: 63–72.

[G42b] Gulliver, G. 1842b. Additional measurements of the blood-corpuscles or red particles of Mammalia and birds. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 10: 190–196.

[H11] Hilty, S. L. 2011. Family Thraupidae (tanagers). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 46–329. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[J23] James, E. 1823. Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, performed in the years 1819 and ’20, by order of the Hon. J. C. Calhoun, sec’y of war: under the command of Major Stephen H. Long. From the notes of Major Long, Mr. T. Say, and other gentlemen of the exploring party vol. 1. H. C. Carey & I. Lea: Philadelphia.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[SS66] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866. Catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Uyacali, Eastern Peru, with notes and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 175–201.

[S18] Stone, W. 1918. Birds of the Panama Canal Zone, with special reference to a collection made by Mr. Lindsey L. Jewel. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 239–280.

[WBSJ82] Wild Bird Society of Japan. 1982. A Field Guide to the Birds of Japan. Kodansha International Ltd.: Tokyo.

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