Fulgoridae

 Black planthopper Desudaba psittacus, copyright Graham Wise.

Belongs within: Auchenorrhyncha.

The Fulgoridae, lanternflies, are a group of medium-sized to large planthoppers in which the head is often remarkably prolonged before the eyes. Species of the Neotropical genus Fulgora are sometimes referred to as peanut bugs in reference to the shape of the head.

Characters (from Carver et al. 1991): Large species, 15 mm or more in length; head often prolonged; clypeus with lateral carinae. Clavus open distally, running full length of fore wing, with numerous cross-veins between anal veins; anal area of hind wings reticulate. Apex of second segment of hind tarsi with ventral row of small dark spines.

<==Fulgoridae
    |--DichopteraSP02
    |--Eurinopsyche arboreaCGW91
    |--Rentinus dilatatusCGW91
    |--Scolops hesperiusBM76
    |--Ormenoides venustaBM76
    |--Lycorma delicatulaH01
    |--Dictyophora pannonicaBM76, H01 [incl. D. pannonica var. diminuta Horváth 1901H01]
    |--Kelisia perspicillataH01
    |--Eurybregma nigrolineataH01
    |--Metropis flavipesH01
    |--Stiroma albomarginataH01
    |--BirdantisCGW91
    |--Urvillea melanesica Kirkaldy 1907K08
    |--Nesocharis kalypso Kirkaldy 1907K08
    |--Leirioessa vitiensis Kirkaldy 1907K08
    |--Dystheatias beecheyi Kirkaldy 1907 [incl. D. beecheyi var. fuscata Kirkaldy 1907]K08
    |--Quirosia vitiensis Kirkaldy 1907K08
    |--Nesochlamys vitiensis Kirkaldy 1907K08
    |--Eurystheus dilatatusWEE70
    |--Pentagramma vittatifronsS38
    |--Ormenis pruinosaS38
    |--LimoisRJ93
    |--PhenaxRD77
    |--PoioceraP92
    |--Galela [Aphaeninae]MC13
    |    `--G. parvaMC13
    |--PheneliaK08
    |    |--P. bicuneata Kirkaldy 1907K08
    |    `--P. tristis Kirkaldy 1907K08
    |--CallichlamysK08
    |    |--C. muiri Kirkaldy 1907K08
    |    `--C. undulata Kirkaldy 1907K08
    |--HaplaxiusBM76
    |    |--H. crudusF11
    |    |--H. pictifronsE66
    |    `--H. radicisE66
    |--FulgoraGE05
    |    |--F. europeaR26
    |    |--F. lanternariaGE05
    |    `--F. nervosa (Linnaeus 1758)L02, L58 [=Cicada nervosaL02]
    |--DesudabaC91
    |    |--D. danaeC91
    |    |--D. maculataWEE70
    |    `--D. psittacusCGW91
    `--CallinesiaK08
         |--C. ornata Kirkaldy 1907K08
         |--C. pulchra Kirkaldy 1907K08
         |--C. pusilla Kirkaldy 1907K08
         `--C. venusta Kirkaldy 1907K08

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[C91] CSIRO. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[E66] Evans, H. E. 1966. The Comparative Ethology and Evolution of the Sand Wasps. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[F11] Fraga, R. M. 2011. Family Icteridae (New World blackbirds). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 684–807. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[K08] Kirkaldy, G. W. 1908. A catalogue of the Hemiptera of Fiji. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 345–391, pl. 4.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[SP02] Shcherbakov, D. E., & Yu. A. Popov. 2002. Superorder Cimicidea Laicharting, 1781: Order Hemiptera Linné, 1758. The bugs, cicadas, plantlice, scale insects, etc. [=Cimicida Laicharting, 1781, =Homoptera Leach, 1815 + Heteroptera Latreille, 1810). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 143–157. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[S38] Snodgrass, R. E. 1938. The loral plates and the hypopharynx of Hemiptera. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (8): 228–236.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

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