Funaria hygrometrica, from here.

Belongs within: Bryophyta.
Contains: Funariaceae.

The Funariidae are a clade of mosses including the orders Encalyptales and Funariales. The Funariidae are characterised by an arthrodontous peristome with diplolepidous-facing teeth, and also by the possession of a 71 kb inversion in the chloroplast genome (Wahrmund et al. 2010). Distinctive characters of the separate families include the presence of a massive, persistent calyptra covering the capsule in Encalyptaceae, a fleshy underground stem producing abundant short gametophore branches in Gigaspermaceae, and broad leaves with large pale laminal cells and distinctive stomata in Funariaceae (Bryophyte Flora of North America). Members of the Funariaceae include Discelium nudum and Nanomitrium tenerum, minute species growing from a persistent protonema (Dixon 1924).

<==Funariidae [Funarianae, Funaridae]OZB-O03
    |--Timmia Hedw. 1801 (nom. cons.) [Timmiaceae, Timmiales, Timmiidae, Timmiineae]S04
    |    |--T. sect. TimmiaOZB-O03
    |    |    |--T. bavarica Hessl. 1822OZB-O03
    |    |    `--T. megapolitana Hedw. 1801OZB-O03, S04 [incl. T. megapolitana f. brevifoliaOZB-O03, T. neglectaOZB-O03]
    |    |--T. sect. Norvegicae Brassard 1979OZB-O03
    |    |    `--T. norvegica Zetterst. 1862OZB-O03, S04 [incl. T. scoticaD24]
    |    `--T. sect. Timmiaurea Brassard 1979OZB-O03
    |         `--T. austriaca Hedw. 1801OZB-O03, S04
    |--Funariales [Funariineae, Funaroideae]SK02
    |    |--FunariaceaeSK02
    |    |--Discelium Brid. 1826 [Disceliaceae]S04
    |    |    `--D. nudum (Dicks.) Brid. 1826S04 [=Bryum nudumD24]
    |    `--GigaspermaceaeSK02
    |         |--Lorentziella imbricataFHH01
    |         `--Gigaspermum Lindb. 1865SK02
    |              `--G. repens (Hooker) Lindb. 1865SK02 (see below for synonymy)
    `--Encalyptaceae [Encalyptales, Encalyptidae]S04
         `--Encalypta Hedw. 1801S04
              |  i. s.: E. novae-valesiae Hampe 1872 [=Pyramitrium novae-valesiae; incl. E. novae-cambriae (n. n.)]SK02
              |         E. proceraD24
              |--E. sect. EncalyptaS04
              |    |--E. affinis Hedw. in Weber & Mohr 1805 [incl. E. apophysata]OZB-O03
              |    |--E. ciliata Hedw. 1801S04 (see below for synonymy)
              |    |    |--E. c. var. ciliataD24
              |    |    `--E. c. var. subciliataD24
              |    `--E. microstoma Bals.-Criv. & De Not. 1838OZB-O03
              |--E. sect. Diplolepis Kindb. 1897S04
              |    |--E. alpina Sm. 1805S04 [=Leersia alpinaD24; incl. E. commutataS04]
              |    |    |--E. a. var. alpinaD24
              |    |    `--E. ‘commutata’ var. imberbisD24
              |    `--E. brevicollis (Bruch & Schimp.) Ångstr. 1844S04
              |--E. sect. Pyromitrium Wallr. ex Hampe 1872OZB-O03
              |--E. sect. Rhabdotheca Müll. Hal. 1849S04
              |    |--E. rhaptocarpa Schwägr. 1811S04 [=E. rhabdocarpaS04, Leersia rhabdocarpaD24; incl. E. wimmerianaOZB-O03]
              |    `--E. vulgaris Hedw. 1801S04 (see below for synonymy)
              |         |--E. v. var. vulgaris [incl. E. australis, E. tasmanica]SK02
              |         |--E. v. var. laevigataD24
              |         |--E. v. var. mutica Brid. 1819SK02
              |         `--E. v. var. obtusifoliaD24
              `--E. sect. Streptotheca (Kindb.) Broth. 1902S04
                   `--E. streptocarpa Hedw. 1801S04 [incl. E. contortaOZB-O03, Leersia contortaD24, E. grandisOZB-O03]
Nomen nudum: Eucalypta patagonica Broth. in Dusén 1903D03

Encalypta ciliata Hedw. 1801S04 [=Leersia ciliataD24; incl. E. fimbriataOZB-O03, E. laciniataOZB-O03, Leersia laciniataD24]

Encalypta vulgaris Hedw. 1801S04 [=Leersia vulgarisOZB-O03; incl. E. extinctoria var. apiculataOZB-O03, E. vulgaris var. apiculataOZB-O03, E. vulgaris var. elongataOZB-O03, E. extinctoriaOZB-O03, E. vulgaris var. mutica Brid. 1819OZB-O03, SK02, E. extinctoria var. obtusaOZB-O03, E. vulgaris var. obtusaOZB-O03, E. vulgaris var. piliferaOZB-O03]

Gigaspermum repens (Hooker) Lindb. 1865SK02 [=Anictangium repensSK02, Anoectangium repensSK02, Hedwigia repensSK02, Leptangium repensSK02, Physcomitrium repensSK02, Schistidium repensSK02; incl. Trianthema humillima Muell. 1876PV84, Gigaspermum subrepens Müll.Hal. 1901SK02, Leptangium tumidumSK02, G. tumidumSK02]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student’s Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. Patagonian and Fuegian mosses. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 18961899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 63–126. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[FHH01] Frey, W., M. Hofmann & H. H. Hilger. 2001. The gametophyte-sporophyte junction: unequivocal hints for two evolutionary lines of archegoniate land plants. Flora 196: 431–445.

[OZB-O03] Ochyra, R., J. Żarnowiec & H. Bednarek-Ochyra. 2003. Census Catalogue of Polish Mosses. Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences: Cracow.

[PV84] Prescott, A., & J. Venning. 1984. Aizoaceae. In: George, A. S. (ed.) Flora of Australia vol. 4. Phytolaccaceae to Chenopodiaceae pp. 19–62. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[S04] Smith, A. J. E. 2004. The Moss Flora of Britain and Ireland 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

Wahrmund, U., D. Quandt & V. Knoop. 2010. The phylogeny of mosses—addressing open issues with a new mitochondrial locus: group I intron cobi420. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 54 (2): 417–426.

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