Furcatergalia

 Holotype fossil nymph of Furvoneta lucida, from Sinitshenkova (2002).

Belongs within: Panephemeroptera.
Contains: Leptophlebiidae, Ephemeroidea, Caenoidea, Ephemerelloidea.

The Furcatergalia are a group of mayflies characterised by bifurcate tergaliae in the nymphs, and a shortened first tarsal segment in the adults (Kluge & Sinitshenkova 2002). Major subgroups of the Furcatergalia include the Pannota, in which nymphs of the penultimate instar have wing pads fused to the mesothorax for less than half of their length. The Mesonetidae are a Mesozoic family of pannotans known only from nymphs.

Outside the Pannota, the Ephemeroidea, Behningia and the Mesozoic Torephemeridae have nymphs specialised for burrowing. Behningia is a Holarctic genus with specialised wing venation in which the main longitudinal veins are arranged in closely parallel pairs (Richards & Davies 1977).

<==Furcatergalia [Ephemeromorpha]
    |--+--LeptophlebiidaeGE05
    |  |--EphemeroideaGE05
    |  `--+--BehningiaRD77 [Behningiidae, BehningioideaGE05]
    |     `--TorephemeraRJ93 [TorephemeridaeGE05]
    |          `--T. longipes Sinichenkova 1989RJ93
    `--PannotaPC91
         |--CaenoideaMD03
         `--+--EphemerelloideaMD03
            `--MesonetidaeGE05
                 |--Mesoneta antiquaS02
                 |--Clavineta Sinitshenkova 1991S02
                 |    `--C. cantabilis Sinitshenkova 1991S02
                 `--Furvoneta Sinitshenkova 1985S02
                      |--F. lata (Sinitshenkova 1976)S02
                      |--F. lucida Sinitshenkova 2002S02
                      |--F. sobria Sinitshenkova 2002S02
                      `--F. undina (Sinitshenkova 1976)S02

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[MD03] Molineri, C., & E. Domínguez. 2003. Nymph and egg of Melanemerella brasiliana (Ephemeroptera: Ephemerelloidea: Melanemerellidae), with comments on its systematic position and the higher classification of Ephemerelloidea. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 22 (2): 263–275.

[PC91] Peters, W. L., & I. C. Campbell. 1991. Ephemeroptera (mayflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 279–293. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. New late Mesozoic mayflies from the Shar-Teeg locality, Mongolia (Insecta, Ephemerida = Ephemeroptera). Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal 2002 (3): 43–48 (translated: Paleontological Journal 36 (3): 270–276).

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