Fusulinoida

Equatorial section of Neoschwagerina, from here.

Belongs within: Loeblichiidae.
Contains: Schubertellidae, Boultoniidae, Palaeofusulinidae, Triticitidae, Rugosofusulinidae, Pseudofusulinidae, Polydiexodinidae, Schwagerininae, Pseudoschwagerininae, Paraschwagerininae, Misellinidae, Neoschwagerinidae, Staffellidae, Pseudostaffellidae, Nankinellidae, Aljutovellidae, Profusulinellidae, Fusulinellinae, Pulchrellinae, Fusulininae, Eofusulininae.

The Fusulinida are a group of Foraminifera known from the Ordovician to the Triassic, characterised by a wall ancestrally composed of microgranular calcite, becoming differentiated into two or more layers in some derived subgroups (Loeblich & Tappan 1964). Early species were often simple with tests divided into few chambers or undivided, but some later lineages became complex and multi-chambered.

The Verbeekinidae are a group of fusulinids known from the Permian, with closely spaced foramina through the bases of all septa. The foramina are bordered by parachomata throughout the test in members of the Upper Permian subfamily Neoschwagerininae; in earlier genera of the subfamily Verbeekininae, the parachomata are discontinuous in earlier volutions of the test, becoming continuous only in later volutions (and throughout the test in later genera of this subfamily). Neoschwagerininae are further characterised by the presence of at least transverse septula, and sometimes also axial septula (Loeblich & Tappan 1964).

<==Fusulinoida [Fusulinaceae, Fusulinidea, Fusulinoidea, Neoschwagerinaceae, Verbeekinacea, Verbeekinidea]M13
    |  i. s.: Fujimotoella Morikawa 1952LT64
    |           `--*F. umblicata Morikawa 1952LT64
    |         Moscoviella Miklukho-Maklay 1952 [=Moscovella Thompson 1954]LT64
    |           `--*M. mosquensis (Rauzer-Chernousova in Rauzer-Chernousova et al. 1951) (see below for synonymy)LT64
    |         Praeparafusulina Tumanskaya 1962LT64
    |           `--*P. pseudojaponica (Dutkevitch in Gorsky 1939) [=Parafusulina pseudojaponica]LT64
    |         Carbonoschwagerina morikawaiN00
    |--SchubertellidaM13
    |    |--SchubertellidaeK04
    |    |--BoultoniidaeM13
    |    |--PalaeofusulinidaeM13
    |    `--Yangchienia Lee 1933LT64 [=Jangchienia Miklukho-Maklay 1953LT64; YangchieniidaeM13, Yangchieninae]
    |         |--*Y. iniqua Lee 1933 [=*Jangchienia iniqua]LT64
    |         |--Y. haydeniDX84
    |         `--Y. tobleriLT64
    |--SchwagerinidaM13
    |    |--TriticitidaeM13
    |    |--RugosofusulinidaeM13
    |    |--PseudofusulinidaeM13
    |    |--PolydiexodinidaeM13
    |    `--SchwagerinidaeM13
    |         |--SchwagerininaeM13
    |         |--PseudoschwagerininaeM13
    |         `--ParaschwagerininaeM13
    |--NeoschwagerinidaM13
    |    |--MisellinidaeM13
    |    |--NeoschwagerinidaeM13
    |    |--Verbeekina Staff 1909 [incl. Paraverbeekina Miklukho-Maklay 1955; Verbeekinidae, Verbeekininae]LT64
    |    |    |  i. s.: V. deprati [=Schwagerina deprati]G31
    |    |    |         V. grabauiLT64
    |    |    |         V. pontica (Miklukho-Maklay 1955) [=*Paraverbeekina pontica]LT64
    |    |    |--*V. (Verbeekina) verbeeki (Geinitz 1876)R-CB96 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    `--V. (Quasiverbeekina Wang, Sheng & Zhang 1981)R-CB96
    |    |         `--V. (*Q.) pedashanica Wang, Sheng & Zhang 1981R-CB96
    |    |--Pseudodoliolinidae [Pseudodoliolininae]M13
    |    |    |--Metadoliolina Ishii & Nogami 1961R-CB96
    |    |    |    |--*M. gravitesta (Kanmera 1954) [=Pseudodoliolina pseudolepida gravitesta]R-CB96
    |    |    |    `--M. lepidaR-CB96
    |    |    `--Pseudodoliolina Yabe & Hansawa 1932R-CB96
    |    |         |--*P. ozawai Yabe & Hansawa 1932R-CB96
    |    |         |--P. lettensis [=Doliolina lettensis, Misellina lettensis]DX84
    |    |         `--P. pseudolepidaLT64
    |    `--Sumatrinidae [Sumatrininae]M13
    |         |--Presumatrina Tumanskaya 1950R-CB96 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |    `--*P. schellwieni (Deprat 1913) [=Doliolina schellwieni, *Praesumatrina schellwieni]LT64
    |         |--Sumatrina Volz 1904 [incl. Pseudolepidolina Tumanskaya 1953]LT64
    |         |    |--*S. annae (Volz 1904) [=Neoschwagerina (*Sumatrina) annae]R-CB96
    |         |    `--S. longissima (Deprat 1914) [=Neoschwagerina (Sumatrina) longissima, *Pseudolepidolina longissima]LT64
    |         `--Afghanella Thompson 1946R-CB96 [=Avganella Miklukho-Maklay 1953LT64; incl. Pseudosumatrina Tumanskaya 1950LT64]
    |              |--*A. schencki Thompson 1946 [=*Avganella schencki]LT64
    |              `--A. sumatrinaeformis (Gubler 1935) (see below for synonymy)LT64
    |--StaffellidaM13
    |    |--StaffellidaeLT64
    |    |--PseudostaffellidaeM13
    |    |--NankinellidaeR-CB96
    |    |--Cheniidae [Cheniinae]M13
    |    |    |--Chenia Sheng 1963R-CB96
    |    |    |    `--*C. kwangsiensis Sheng 1963R-CB96
    |    |    `--Primoriina Sosnina 1981R-CB96
    |    |         `--*P. ovoidea Sosnina 1981R-CB96
    |    |--Kahlerinidae [Kahlerininae]M13
    |    |    |--Pseudokahlerina Sosnina 1968R-CB96
    |    |    |    `--*P. discoidalis Sosnina 1968R-CB96
    |    |    `--Kahlerina Kochansky-Devidé 1955R-CB96 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |         |--*K. pachytheca Kochansky-Devidé 1955R-CB96
    |    |         `--K. ussurica (Sosnina in Kiparisova et al. 1956) [=*Ussuriella ussurica]LT64
    |    |--Pisolinidae [Pisolininae]M13
    |    |    |--Pisolina Lee 1933LT64
    |    |    |    `--*P. excessa Lee 1933LT64
    |    |    |--‘Caspiella’ Gibshman & Sipko 1985 nec Thiele 1928 nec Mandelstam 1956R-CB96
    |    |    |    `--*C. volgensis (Ketat 1982) [=Sphaerulina volgensis]R-CB96
    |    |    |--Pamirina Leven 1970R-CB96
    |    |    |    `--*P. darvasica Leven 1970R-CB96
    |    |    `--Zarodella Sosnina 1981R-CB96
    |    |         `--*Z. zhamoidai Sosnina 1981R-CB96
    |    `--PseudoendothyridaeM13
    |         |--Palaeostaffella Liem 1966R-CB96
    |         |    `--*P. moelleri (Ozawa 1925) [=Staffella moelleri]R-CB96
    |         |--Parastaffella Rauser 1948R-CB96
    |         |    `--*P. struvei (Moeller 1880) [=Fusulinella struvei]R-CB96
    |         `--Pseudoendothyra Mikhailov 1939R-CB96
    |              |  i. s.: P. kremenskensisR79
    |              |--P. (Pseudoendothyra) mikhailovi Rauser 1985 (see below for synonymy)R-CB96
    |              `--P. (Volgella Reitlinger 1977)R-CB96
    |                   `--P. (*V.) orbiculata Reitlinger 1977R-CB96
    `--FusulinidaM13
         |  i. s.: Thailandina hongnusonthinae Toriyama & Kanmera 1968ZL04
         |--AljutovellidaeM13
         |--ProfusulinellidaeM13
         |--FusulinellidaeM13
         |    |--FusulinellinaeM13
         |    `--PulchrellinaeM13
         |--Hemifusulina Moeller 1877R-CB96 [=Hemifusina (l. c.)LT64; HemifusulinidaeM13, Hemifusulininae]
         |    |  i. s.: ‘Fusulina’ minimaLT64
         |    |--*H. (Hemifusulina) bocki Moeller 1877R-CB96
         |    |--H. (Dutkevichella Putrja 1956)R-CB96
         |    |    `--H. (*D.) dutkevichi (Putrja 1937) [=Fusulina dutkevichi]R-CB96
         |    `--H. (Hemifusulinella Rumjanceva 1962)R-CB96
         |         `--H. (*H.) djartassenssi Rumjanceva 1962R-CB96
         |--Wedekindellinidae [Wedekindellininae]M13
         |    |--Parawendekindellina Safonova 1951R-CB96
         |    |    `--*P. kamensis Safonova 1951R-CB96 [=Wedekindellina kamensisLT64]
         |    |--Thompsonella Skinner & Wilde 1965R-CB96
         |    |    `--*T. rugosa Skinner & Wilde 1965R-CB96
         |    `--Wedekindellina Dunbar & Henbest 1933R-CB96 (see below for synonymy)
         |         |--*W. euthysepta (Henbest 1928) (see below for synonymy)LT64
         |         `--W. maturaLT64
         `--FusulinidaeCV01
              |  i. s.: Eowedekindellina Ektova 1977HW93
              |--FusulininaeLT64
              |--EofusulininaeM13
              |--Quasifusulina Chen 1934LT64 [=Epifusulina Chen 1936LT64; QuasifusulininaeM13]
              |    |--*Q. longissima (Moeller 1878)R-CB96 (see below for synonymy)
              |    `--Q. tenuissimaC40
              `--BeedeininaeM13
                   |--Beedeina Galloway 1933LT64
                   |    `--*B. girtyi (Dunbar & Condra 1927) [=Fusulinella girtyi, Fusulina girtyi]LT64
                   |--Citronites Solovieva in Rauzer-Chernousova, Bensh et al. 1996R-CB96
                   |    `--*C. citronoides (Manukalova 1948) [=Fusulina citronoides]R-CB96
                   |--Parabeedeina Solovieva in Rauzer-Chernousova, Bensh et al. 1996R-CB96
                   |    `--*P. elegans (Rauser & Beljaev 1940) [=Fusulina elegans]R-CB96
                   `--Putrella Rauser 1951R-CB96
                        `--*P. brazhnikovae (Putrja 1948) [=Pseudotriticites brazhnikovae]R-CB96

Afghanella sumatrinaeformis (Gubler 1935) [=Neoschwagerina sumatrinaeformis, *Pseudosumatrina sumatrinaeformis]LT64

Kahlerina Kochansky-Devidé 1955R-CB96 [incl. Ussuriella Sosnina in Kiparisova et al. 1956 non Paramonov 1929LT64]

*Moscoviella mosquensis (Rauzer-Chernousova in Rauzer-Chernousova et al. 1951) [=Ozawainella mosquensis, *Moscovella mosquensis]LT64

Presumatrina Tumanskaya 1950R-CB96 [=Praesumatrina Miklukho-Maklay, Rauzer-Chernousova & Rozovskaya in Rauzer-Chernousova & Fursenko 1959LT64]

Pseudoendothyra (Pseudoendothyra) mikhailovi Rauser 1985 [=Fusulinella struvei Mikhailov 1939 non Moeller 1880, *Pseudoendothyra struvei]R-CB96

*Quasifusulina longissima (Moeller 1878)R-CB96 [=Fusulina longissimaR-CB96, *Epifusulina longissimaLT64, Schellwienia longissimaG31; incl. S. longissima var. compactaG31, S. longissima var. phaseolusG31, S. longissima var. tenuisG31]

*Verbeekina (Verbeekina) verbeeki (Geinitz 1876)R-CB96 [=Fusulina verbeekiR-CB96, Moellerina verbeekiG31, Schwagerina verbeekiG31]

Wedekindellina Dunbar & Henbest 1933R-CB96 [=Wedekindella Dunbar & Henbest 1930 non Schindewolf 1928LT64, Wedekindia Dunbar & Henbest 1931 non Schindewolf 1925LT64]

*Wedekindellina euthysepta (Henbest 1928) [=Fusulinella euthysepta, *Wedekindella euthysepta, *Wedekindia euthysepta]LT64

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[CV01] Cózar, P., & D. Vachard. 2001. Dainellinae subfam. nov. (Foraminiferida du Carbomifère inférieur), révision et nouveaux taxons. Geobios 34 (5): 505–526.

[C40] Cushman, J. A. 1940. Foraminifera: Their classification and economic use 3rd ed. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[DX84] Ding Y., Xia G., Duan C., Li W., Liu X. & Liang Z. 1984. Study on the early Permian stratigraphy and fauna in Zhesi district, Nei Mongol Zizhiqu (Inner Mongolia). Bulletin Tianjin Institure Geol. Min. Res. 10.

[G31] Grabau, A. W. 1931. The Permian of Mongolia: A report on the Permian fauna of the Jisu Honguer limestone of Mongolia and its relations to the Permian of other parts of the world. American Museum of Natural History: New York.

[HW93] Hart, M. B., & C. L. Williams. 1993. Protozoa. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 43–70. Chapman & Hall: London.

[K04] Kobayashi, F. 2004. Late Permian foraminifers from the Limestone Block in the Southern Chichibu Terrane of west Shikoku, SW Japan. Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 62–70.

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[M13] Mikhalevich, V. I. 2013. New insight into the systematics and evolution of the Foraminifera. Micropaleontology 59 (6): 493–527.

[N00] Niko, S. 2000. Youngest record of tentaculitoids: Hidagaienites new genus from near the Carboniferous–Permian boundary in central Japan. Journal of Paleontology 74 (3): 381–385.

[R-CB96] Rauzer-Chernousova, D. M., F. R. Bensh, M. V. Vdovenko, N. B. Gibshman, E. Y. Leven, O. A. Lipina, E. A. Reitlinger, M. N. Solovieva & I. O. Chedija. 1996. Spravočnik po Sistematike Foraminifer Paleozoâ (Èndotiroidy, Fuzulinoidy). Rossijskaâ Akademiâ Nauk, Geologičeskij Institut, Moskva “Nauka”.

[R79] Ross, C. A. 1979. Carboniferous. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A254–A290. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[ZL04] Zhou, Z., & M. Liengjarern. 2004. Lower Permian perrinitid ammonoid faunas from Thailand. Journal of Paleontology 78: 317–339.

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