Gadidae

 Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, copyright Joachim S. Müller.

Belongs within: Gadiformes.

The Gadidae, cods, are marine fishes found primarily in circumpolar to temperate waters of the Northern Hemisphere. They are characterised by an externally symmetrical caudal fin, rounded cycloid scales, no v-shaped ridge on the top of the head, and a swim bladder that is not connected to the skull (Klein-MacPhee 2002a). Several species are targets of commercially significant fisheries, including the walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma, pollock Pollachius virens and haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Bond 1996).

<==Gadidae [Lotidae, Lotinae]
    |--Gaidropsarus vulgaris (Cloquet 1824)LD09
    `--+--Enchelyopus Bloch & Schneider 1801LD09, K-M02a [incl. Rhinonemus Gill 1863K-M02a]
       |    |--E. cimbrius (Linné 1766)LD09
       |    `--E. elongatusLN10
       `--+--Merlangius merlangus (Linnaeus 1758)LD09
          `--Gadus Linnaeus 1758LD09, L58 [Gadinae]
               |--G. aeglefinus Linnaeus 1758L58
               |--G. barbatus Linnaeus 1758L58
               |--G. callarias Linnaeus 1758L58 [=G. morhua callariasB96]
               |--G. carbonarius Linnaeus 1758L58
               |--G. esmarkiiP61
               |--G. lota Linnaeus 1758L58
               |--G. luscus Linnaeus 1758L58
               |--G. macrocephalusB96
               |--G. mediterraneus Linnaeus 1758L58
               |--G. melanostomusD56 [incl. G. potassouO05]
               |--G. merlangus Linnaeus 1758L58
               |--G. merluccius Linnaeus 1758L58
               |--G. minutus Linnaeus 1758L58
               |--G. molva Linnaeus 1758L58
               |--G. morhua Linnaeus 1758K-M02a
               |--G. mustela Linnaeus 1758L58
               |--G. ovakD56
               |--G. pollachius Linnaeus 1758L58
               `--G. virens Linnaeus 1758L58
Gadidae incertae sedis:
  Brosme brosme (Ascanius 1772)K-M02a
  MolvaB96
    |--M. byrkelangeD56
    |--M. dipterygiaCS77
    |--M. elongataPP64
    `--M. macrophthalmusK-M02b
  CiliataB96
  Lota lota (Linnaeus 1758)SM06, SE08
  Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Linnaeus 1758)K-M02a
  Microgadus tomcod (Walbaum 1792)K-M02a
  PollachiusK-M02a
    |--P. pollachiusCS77
    `--P. virens (Linnaeus 1758)K-M02a
  Theragra chalcogrammaB96
  MicromesistiusB96
    |--M. australisH01
    `--M. poutassouB96
  Arctogadus borisoviB96
  Boreogadus saidaB96
  Lotidarum marinus Gaemers 1985P93
  Palaeomolva monstrata Fedotov 1974P93
  Parvicolliolus minutulus (Gaemers 1978)P93
  GadiculusP93
    |--G. altus (Gaemers & van Hinsbergh 1978)P93
    `--G. argenteusPP64
  Trisopterus elegansF91

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B96] Bond, C. E. 1996. Biology of Fishes 2nd ed. Saunders College Publishing: Fort Worth.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[D56] Dawes, B. 1956. The Trematoda with special reference to British and other European forms. University Press: Cambridge.

[F91] Freess, W. B. 1991. Beiträge zur Kenntnis von Fauna und Flora des marinen Mitteloligozäns bei Leipzig. Altenburger Naturwissenschaftliche Forschungen 6: 3–74.

[H01] Harcourt, R. G. 2001. Advances in New Zealand mammalogy 1990–2000: pinnipeds. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 31 (1): 135–160.

[K-M02a] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002a. Cods. Family Gadidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 223–261. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[K-M02b] Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002b. Ocean sunfishes. Family Molidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 603–607. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[LD09] Li, B., A. Dettaï, C. Cruaud, A. Couloux, M. Desoutter-Meniger & G. Lecointre. 2009. RNF213, a new nuclear marker for acanthomorph phylogeny. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 50: 345–363.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[LN10] Liu, J., & P. Ning. 2010. Species composition and faunal characteristics of fishes of the Yellow Sea. In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of “Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean”, 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 42–43. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

[O05] Odhner, T. 1905. Die Trematoden des arktischen Gebietes. In: Römer, F., & F. Schaudinn (eds) Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenstellun der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pp. 289–372. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[P93] Patterson, C. 1993. Osteichthyes: Teleostei. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 621–656. Chapman & Hall: London.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[P61] Price, E. W. 1961. North American monogenetic trematodes IX. The families Mazocraeidae and Plectanocotylidae. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 127–156.

[SM06] Satoh, T. P., M. Miya, H. Endo & M. Nishida. 2006. Round and pointed-head grenadier fishes (Actinopterygii: Gadiformes) represent a single sister group: evidence from the complete mitochondrial genome sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (1): 129–138.

[SE08] Sevcsik, A., & T. Erös. 2008. A revised catalogue of freshwater fishes of Hungary and the neighbouring countries in the Hungarian Natural History Museum (Pisces). Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 100: 331–383.

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