Marsh bedstraw Galium palustre agg., from here.

Belongs within: Paederieae.

Galium, bedstraw, is a cosmopolitan genus of small herbs. Many species in the genus have noticeably ‘sticky’ stems with small recurved hairs. These include the cleavers Galium aparine, which is native to temperate Eurasia but has become naturalised in many other parts of the world. The three-petal bedstraw G. trifidum is another species that is widespread across the Holarctic region; both the vernacular and botanical names refer to its distinctive three-lobed corollas, in contrast to the four lobes of other species.

Characters (from Hickman 1993): Annual, perennial, sometimes more or less shrubby, often more or less dioecious, glabrous or hairy, often scabrous. Stem when young four-angled. Leaves in whorls of four or more, including leaf-like stipules. Inflorescence a panicle, or axillary clusters of one to many flowers. Flower bisexual or unisexual (with sterile stamens or pistils); calyx absent; corolla generally rotate, sometimes more or less bell-shaped, generally greenish, fading yellow or white, sometimes reddish, lobes generally 4; ovary 2-lobed, styles 2, more or less fused basally. Fruit two nutlets or one berry.

<==Galium Linnaeus 1753A61
    |--G. sect. Aparinoides (Jordan) Gren. 1851B06
    |    |--G. innocuumB06
    |    |--G. karakulenseB06
    |    |--G. palustreB06
    |    |--G. shanense Bhattacharjee 2006B06
    |    `--G. trifidumB06
    |         |--G. t. var. trifidumH93
    |         |--G. t. var. pacificumH93
    |         `--G. t. var. pusillumH93
    |--G. sect. Asperigalium Bhattacharjee 2006B06
    |    |--G. (sect. *Asperigalium) asperifoliumB06
    |    |--G. acutumB06
    |    |--G. campylotrichumB06
    |    |--G. confertumB06
    |    |--G. duthiei Bhattacharjee 2006B06
    |    |    |--G. d. var. duthieiB06
    |    |    `--G. d. var. glabriusculum Bhattacharjee 2006B06
    |    |--G. himachalenseB06
    |    |--G. megacyttarionB06
    |    |--G. pilosissimumB06
    |    |--G. poluniniiB06
    |    |--G. pseudoaserifoliumB06
    |    |--G. subfalcatumB06
    |    |--G. tetraphyllumB06
    |    `--G. vicaryiiB06
    |--G. sect. Hirtiflorum Bhattacharjee 2006B06
    |    |--G. (sect *Hirtiflorum) hirtiflorumB06
    |    `--G. subtrinervumB06
    `--G. sect. TrachygaliumB06
         |--G. ceratophylloidesB06
         `--G. kaganense Bhattacharjee 2006B06
Galium incertae sedis:
  G. albumBM00
  G. ambiguumH93
    |--G. a. var. ambiguumH93
    `--G. a. var. siskiyouenseH93
  G. andrewsiiH93
    |--G. a. ssp. andrewsiiH93
    |--G. a. ssp. gatenseH93
    `--G. a. ssp. intermediumH93
  G. angustifoliumH93
    |--G. a. ssp. angustifoliumH93
    |--G. a. ssp. borregoenseH93
    |--G. a. ssp. foliosumH93
    |--G. a. ssp. gabrielenseH93
    |--G. a. ssp. gracillimumH93
    |--G. a. ssp. nudicauleH93
    `--G. a. ssp. onycenseH93
  G. aparine [incl. G. spurium]H93
  G. argenseH93
  G. australeBR65
  G. bifoliumH93
  G. bolanderi [incl. G. pubens]H93
  G. borealeH93
    |--G. b. ssp. borealeH93
    `--G. b. ssp. septentrionaleH93
  G. brevifoliumPT98
  G. brevipesJ87
  G. buxifoliumH93
  G. californicumH93
    |--G. c. ssp. californicumH93
    |--G. c. ssp. flaccidumH93
    |--G. c. ssp. lucienseH93
    |--G. c. ssp. maritimumH93
    |--G. c. ssp. miguelenseH93
    |--G. c. ssp. primumH93
    `--G. c. ssp. sierraeH93
  G. capitatum Bory & Chaubard 1832PL04
  G. catalinenseH93
    |--G. c. ssp. catalinenseH93
    `--G. c. ssp. acrispumH93
  G. clementisH93
  G. cliftonsmithiiH93
  G. corrudoefoliumC74
  G. cruciataTG88
  G. divaricatumBR65
  G. exileO88
  G. fuegianumD03
  G. gaudichaudii [incl. G. ciliare]BR65
    |--G. g. var. gaudichaudiiBR65
    `--G. g. var. muriculatumBR65
  G. glabrescensH93
    |--G. g. ssp. glabrescensH93
    `--G. g. ssp. modocenseH93
  G. grandeH93
  G. grayanumH93
    |--G. g. var. grayanumH93
    `--G. g. var. nanumH93
  G. halliiH93
  G. hardhamiaeH93
  G. hilendiaeH93
    |--G. h. ssp. hilendiaeH93
    |--G. h. ssp. carneum [=G. munzii var. carneum]H93
    `--G. h. ssp. kingstonense [=G. munzii var. kingstonense]H93
  G. hypotrichiumH93
    |--G. h. ssp. hypotrichium [incl. G. hypotrichium ssp. ebbettsense]H93
    |--G. h. ssp. inyoenseH93
    |--G. h. ssp. subalpinumH93
    `--G. h. ssp. tomentellumH93
  G. jepsoniiH93
  G. johnstonii [incl. G. angustifolium var. pinetorum]H93
  G. latifoliumEBS98
  G. magnifoliumH93
  G. matthewsiiH93
  G. mexicanumH93
    |--G. m. var. mexicanumH93
    `--G. m. var. asperulumH93
  G. mollugo Linnaeus 1753PL04
  G. multiflorum [incl. G. multiflorum f. hirsutum, G. watsonii]H93
  G. munziiH93
  G. muraleBR65
  G. muricatumH93
  G. nuttalliiH93
    |--G. n. ssp. nuttalliiH93
    `--G. n. ssp. insulareH93 [=G. brevifolium ssp. insularePT98]
  G. oreganumH93
  G. parishiiH93
  G. parisiense [incl. G. anglicum]C06
  G. perpusillum (Hooker) Allan 1961 (see below for synonymy)A61
  G. porrigensH93
    |--G. p. var. porrigens [incl. G. nuttallii var. ovalifolium]H93
    `--G. p. var. tenue [=G. nuttallii var. tenue]H93
  G. proliferumH93
  G. propinquum Cunn. 1839 (see below for synonymy)A61
  G. pumilumC55a
  G. pusillosetosumO88
  G. relbumD03
  G. saccharatumC55b
  G. saxatilePAE98
  G. schultesiiH93
  G. serpenticumH93
    |--G. s. ssp. serpenticumH93
    |--G. s. ssp. scotticumH93
    `--G. s. ssp. warnerenseH93
  G. serpylloidesO88
  G. setaceumPT98
  G. sparsiflorumH93
    |--G. s. ssp. sparsiflorumH93
    `--G. s. ssp. glabriusH93
  G. stellatumH93
    |--G. s. var. stellatumH93
    `--G. s. var. eremicumH93
  G. tenerum [incl. G. aparine var. minor]BR65
  G. tenuicaule Cunn. 1839 [incl. G. triloba Colenso 1888]A61
  G. tinctoriumJ23
  G. tricorneBR65
  G. tricornutumH93
  G. triflorumH93
  G. vaillantiiC55b
  G. verumBBM02
  G. wrightiiH93
Nomen nudum: Galium (sect. Hirtiflorum) falconeriB06

Galium perpusillum (Hooker) Allan 1961 [=Asperula perpusilla Hooker 1853; incl. A. aristifera Colenso 1889, A. fragrantissima Armstrong 1882]A61

Galium propinquum Cunn. 1839 [incl. G. propinquum var. elongata Hooker 1853, G. erythrocaulon Colenso 1884, G. propinquum var. glabrata Hooker 1853, G. propinquum var. hispidula Hooker 1853, G. umbrosum Sol. in Forster 1786 (n. n.)]A61

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[B06] Bhattacharjee, R. 2006. New taxa of Galium L. (Rubiaceae) from the Indian subcontinent. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 48: 59–72.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[BBM02] Bonte, D., L. Baert & J.-P. Maelfait. 2002. Spider assemblage structure and stability in a heterogeneous coastal dune system (Belgium). Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 331–343.

[BM00] Bremer, B., & J.-F. Manen. 2000. Phylogeny and classification of the subfamily Rubioideae (Rubiaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 225: 43–72.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[C74] Coineau, Y. 1974. Éléments pour une monographie morphologique, écologique et biologique des Caeculidae (Acariens). Mémoires du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, nouvelle série, Série A, Zoologie 81: 1–299, 24 pls.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[EBS98] Elliott, K. J., L. R. Boring & W. T. Swank. 1998. Changes in vegetation structure and diversity after grass-to-forest succession in a southern Appalachian watershed. American Midland Naturalist 140: 219–232.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[J23] James, E. 1823. Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, performed in the years 1819 and ’20, by order of the Hon. J. C. Calhoun, sec’y of war: under the command of Major Stephen H. Long. From the notes of Major Long, Mr. T. Say, and other gentlemen of the exploring party vol. 1. H. C. Carey & I. Lea: Philadelphia.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds)The Himalayan Plants vol. 1.  The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[PAE98] Pakeman, R. J., J. P. Attwood & J. Engelen. 1998. Sources of plants colonizing experimentally disturbed patches in an acidic grassland, in eastern England. Journal of Ecology 86: 1032–1041.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209–223.

[TG88] Tepfer, D., A. Goldmann, N. Pamboukdjian, M. Maille, A. Lepingle, D. Chevalier, J. Dénarié & C. Rosenberg. 1988. A plasmid of Rhizobium meliloti 41 encodes catabolism of two compounds from root exudate of Calystegium sepium. Journal of Bacteriology 170 (3): 1153–1161.

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