Ambulacrum, dorsum and venter of Cyrthydrolaelaps hirtus, from Evans & Till (1979).

Belongs within: Mesostigmata.
Contains: Epicriidae, Zerconidae, Parasitidae, Eviphidoidea, Phytoseioidea, Ascidae, Ameroseiidae, Melicharidae, Rhodacaridae, Ologamasidae, Digamasellidae, Halolaelapidae, Veigaia, Gamasolaelaps, Spinturnicidae, Laelapidae, Dermanyssidae, Rhinonyssidae, Macronyssidae, Varroidae, Halarachnidae.

The Gamasina are a major subdivision of the mesostigmatan mites including the majority of well-known species. In members of the subgroups Parasitidae and Dermanyssiae, the modified chelicerae of males bear specialised appendages used in sperm transfer; such appendages are absent in Epicriiae and Arctacaridae. In Dermanyssiae, this appendage takes the form of a spermatodactyl, a distally-projecting process that is usually free from the movable finger. The female sperm access system opens through a pair of small solenostomes in the region of coxae III or IV.

The Epicriiae are characterised by reduction in the length of the peritremes, at least in the adult stage and sometimes in the nymphs. The dorsal shield is entire in Epicriidae but divided between podonotal and opisthonotal shields in Zerconoidea. Most zerconoids are assigned to the family Zerconidae except the cavernicolous Coprozercon scopaeus, collected from a wood rat faecal depository in Kentucky (Lindquist et al. 2009b).

The Arctacaridae are a group of poorly-known, heavily sclerotised mites found in high latitudes of Asia and North America with the dorsum covered by an entire shield in males but with the dorsal shield abbreviated in females (Lindquist et al. 2009b).

Members of the Dermanyssiae include the Veigaioidea, a group of free-living predators characterised by a hyaline, scale-like process adjacent to the three- or four-tined palptarsal apotele, and often elaborated, fimbriated malae inside the hypostome (Lindquist et al. 2009b).

Characters (from Lindquist et al. 2009b): Adults with one or two dorsal shields, lacking marginal shields or their platelets. Tritosternal base cylindrical or flattened, never subrectangular or columnar. Peritreme typically linear, sometimes reflexed anteriorly or posteriorly, rarely vestigial. Epigynal shield of female flask- or wedge-shaped or subtriangular, often extending into opisthogastric region and bearing setae st5 or flanked by those setae in the postcoxal region; epigynal shield reduced or obliterated in some endoparasitic groups; shield usually not surrounded by fused sternal-endopodal-ventral elements. Femur IV of deutonymph and adult typically with six setae.

<==Gamasina [Epicriides]LKW09b
    |  i. s.: Lysigamasus conus Karg 1971M96
    |--Epicriiae [Epicriina, Epicriinae]LKW09a
    |    |--EpicriidaeLKW09b
    |    `--Zerconoidea [Zerconina]LKW09a
    |         |--ZerconidaeLKW09b
    |         `--Coprozercon Moraza & Lindquist 1998 [Coprozerconidae]ML98
    |              `--*C. scopaeus Moraza & Lindquist 1998ML98
    `--+--Arctacaridae [Arctacariae, Arctacarina, Arctacaroidea]LKW09b
       |    |--Proarctacarus oregonensisLKW09b
       |    `--Arctacarus Evans 1955FH93
       |         `--A. rostratus Evans 1955FH93
          `--Dermanyssiae [Dermanyssides, Dermanyssina, Neopodospermata]LKW09b
               |  i. s.: Lobocephalus Kramer 1898R61
               |           `--*L. acuminatus Kramer 1898R61
               |    |--AscidaeLKW09b
               |    `--+--AmeroseiidaeLKW09b
               |       `--MelicharidaeLKW09b
               |    |--RhodacaridaeK91
               |    |--OlogamasidaeLKW09b
               |    |--DigamasellidaeLKW09b
               |    |--HalolaelapidaeLKW09b
               |    |--Teranyssus [Teranyssidae]LKW09b
               |    |    `--T. howardensisLKW09b
               |    `--Laelaptonyssus Womersley 1956H98 [LaelaptonyssidaeLKW09b]
               |         |--L. darwiniensis Halliday 1987H98
               |         |--L. lenzi Halliday 1987H98
               |         |--L. mitis Womersley 1956H98
               |         `--L. setosusLKW09b
               |--Veigaiidae [Cyrtolaelapidae, Cyrtolaelaptini, Gamasolaelapidae, Veigaiaidae, Veigaioidea]LKW09b
               |    |--VeigaiaLKW09b
               |    |--Cyrthydrolaelaps Berlese 1904FH93
               |    |    |--*C. hirtus Berlese 1905ET79
               |    |    |--C. californicus Hirschmann 1966FH93
               |    |    |--C. kargi Hirschmann 1966H66
               |    |    |--C. schusteri Hirschmann 1966H66
               |    |    `--C. watsoni Hirschmann 1966H66
               |    `--GamasolaelapsFH93
               `--Dermanyssoidea [Laelapoidea]LKW09b
                    |--Ophiopneumicola [Entonyssidae, Entonyssinae]LKW09b
                    |--Manitherionyssus [Manitherionyssidae]LKW09b
                    |    `--M. heterotarsusLKW09b
                    |--Omentolaelaps [Omentolaelapidae]LKW09b
                    |    `--O. mehelyaeLKW09b
                    |--Hystrichonyssus [Hystrichonyssidae]LKW09b
                    |    `--H. turneriLKW09b
                    |    |--Dasyponyssus neivaiLKW09b
                    |    `--Xenarthronyssus furmaniLKW09b
                    |--Larvamima [Larvamimidae]LKW09b
                    |    |--L. carliLKW09b
                    |    |--L. cristataLKW09b
                    |    |--L. marianaeLKW09b
                    |    `--L. schneirlaiLKW09b
                    |    |--Scutanolaelaps Lavoipierre 1958LKW09b, T67
                    |    |    |--S. ophidiusT67
                    |    |    `--S. mehelyae Taufflieb 1967T67
                    |    |--Hemilaelaps Hull 1918LKW09b, FH93
                    |    |--StrandtitibbetsiaLKW09b
                    |    |--AsiatolaelapsLKW09b
                    |    `--Ixodorhynchus liponyssoidesLKW09b
                    `--Iphiopsididae [Iphiopsidinae]LKW09b
                         |--Julolaelaps Berlese 1916FH93
                         |    `--J. moseri Hunter & Rosario 1986FH93
                         |--Trichoaspis [Trichoaspididae]LKW09b
                         |    `--T. julusLKW09b
                         |--Iphiopsis Berlese 1882FH93
                         |    `--I. obesus Banks 1917FH93
                         |--Myrmoleichus Berlese 1904T69
                         |    `--M. coronatusAL37
                         |--Jacobsonia Berlese 1910T69
                         |    `--J. (Parajacobsonia Evans 1955)T69
                         `--Scolopendracarus Evans 1955T69

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AL37] André, M., & É. Lamy. 1937. Les Idées actuelles sur la Phylogénie des Acariens. Published by the author: Paris.

[E-PS91] Estrada-Peña, A., & N. Sánchez. 1991. Dorsal setal distribution and homologies in several species of mites of the family Spinturnicidae (Mesostigmata). In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 141–146. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[ET79] Evans, G. O., & W. M. Till. 1979. Mesostigmatic mites of Britain and Ireland (Chelicerata: Acari—Parasitiformes). An introduction to their external morphology and classification. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 35: 139–270.

[FH93] Farrier, M. H., & M. K. Hennessey. 1993. Soil-inhabiting and free-living Mesostigmata (Acari—Parasitiformes) from North America: an annotated checklist with bibliography and index. North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, North Carolina State University, Technical Bulletin 302: i–xvi, 1–408.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[H66] Hirschmann, W. 1966. Gangsystematik der Parasitiformes. Teil 15. Gänge von Litoralmilben und neue Litoralmilbenarten. Acarologie: Schriftenreihe für Vergleichende Milbenkunde 9: 25–44.

[K91] Koehler, H. H. 1991. The impact of aldicarb on the succession of Gamasina; a one year study. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 749–758. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[LKW09a] Lindquist, E. E., G. W. Krantz & D. E. Walter. 2009a. Classification. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 97–103. Texas Tech University Press.

[LKW09b] Lindquist, E. E., G. W. Krantz & D. E. Walter. 2009b. Order Mesostigmata. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 124–232. Texas Tech University Press.

[ML98] Moraza, M. L., & E. E. Lindquist. 1998. Coprozerconidae, a new family of zerconoid mites from North America (Acari: Mesostigmata: Zerconoidea). Acarologia 39: 291–313.

[M96] Munderloh, E. 1996. Gamasina (Mesostigmata) in a dune transect at Spiekeroog (Germany, Lower Saxony). In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 589–594. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[R61] Ryke, P. A. J. 1961. A review of the genus Saintdidieria Oudemans (Acarina: Rhodacaridae) with remarks on the genus Lobocephalus Kramer. Acarologia 3 (3): 250–255.

[T67] Taufflieb, R. 1967. Un nouveau Laelapidae d’Afrique centrale: Scutanolaelaps mehelyae n. sp. Acarologia 9 (1): 21–25.

[T69] Treat, A. E. 1969. The genus Dicrocheles: three new species and a reappraisal. Acarologia 11 (4): 630–656.

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