Gasteracantha

Female Westring’s spiny spider Gasteracantha westringii, copyright Jon Clarke.

Belongs within: Gasteracanthinae.

Gasteracantha, the spiny orb-web spiders, is a pantropical genus of medium-sized spiders with broad, often strikingly patterned, abdomens bearing distinct spikes. For instance, the widespread New World species G. cancriformis has six red or black spines radiating from the abdomen which is white or yellow spotted with black.

<==Gasteracantha Sundevall 1833T94
|--G. (Gasteracantha)R13
| |--*G. (G.) cancriformis (Linnaeus 1767)SC97 (see below for synonymy)
| |--G. (G.) albiventerKK90
| |--G. (G.) fragispina Koch & Keyserling 1886KK90
| |--G. (G.) hebridisiaKK90
| |--G. (G.) metallica Poc. 1898R13
| |--G. (G.) molluscaKK90
| |--G. (G.) scintillans Butl. 1873 [incl. G. scintillans var. concolor Rainbow 1913]R13
| |--G. (G.) signifer Poc. 1898R13
| |--G. (G.) simoni Koch & Keyserling 1886KK90
| |--G. (G.) taeniataKK90
| |--G. (G.) violentaKK90
| `--G. (G.) westringiiKK90
|--G. (Actinacantha)KK90
| |--G. (A.) hepaticaKK90
| `--G. (A.) regalisKK90
|--G. (Callocantha) geminata (F. 1798) [=Aranea geminata; incl. G. rimata Cambr. 1879]K92
|--G. (Isacantha)KK90
| |--G. (I.) canningensis Stoliczka 1869 [=Gastracantha (I.) canningensis]S69
| |--G. (I.) flavomaculataKK90
| |--G. (I.) lugubrisKK90
| |--G. (I.) minaxKK90
| |--G. (I.) praetextataKK90
| `--G. (I.) sacerdotalisKK90
`--G. (Stanneoclavis)KK90
|--G. (S.) pentagonaKK90
|--G. (S.) suminataKK90
`--G. (S.) variegataKK90

Gasteracantha incertae sedis:
G. acrosomoidesH04
G. arcuataH04
G. audovinii Guerin 1838BAU82
G. brevispina (Doleschall 1857) [=Plectana brevispina]K92
G. canestrinii Cambr. 1879C01
G. clavigera Giebel 1963BAU82
G. curvispinaE95
G. cuspidata Koch 1837 [=Plectana cuspidata]T94
G. dalyi (Pocock 1900)HU08
G. doriae Simon 1877 [incl. G. kulczynskii Strand 1906]J98
G. falcicornis Butler 1873SC97
G. fornicata (Fabr. 1781) [=Aranea fornicata]T94
G. hasselti Koch 1837AM11
G. hecata (Walckenaer 1841)BAU82
G. helvaS69
G. insulanaC01
G. irradiata (Walckenaer 1841)BAU82
G. kochii Butler 1873C01
G. kuhli Koch 1837AM11
G. lataC01
G. lepeletierii (Guerin 1825)BAU82
G. leucomelaena (Doleschall 1859) [=Plectana leucomelas; incl. G. annamita Sim. 1886]T94
G. mammosaC01
G. marsdeniJ98
|--G. m. marsdeniJ98
`--G. m. punctisternis Strand 1906J98
G. milvoides Butler 1873SC97
G. panosicea Butler 1873BAU82
G. quadrispina Lamb 1911M72
G. quinqueserrataC01
G. recurva Simon 1877BAU82
G. remifera Butler 1873 [=G. (Tatacanatha) remifera]BAU82
G. sanguinea Dahl 1914BAU82
G. sanguinolenta Koch 1845 [incl. G. insifera Thorell 1859, G. ornata Thorell 1859]BAU82
G. servilliiC01
G. sexserrataC01
G. tetracantha [=Aranea tetracantha; incl. G. pallida, G. preciosa, G. quadridens]C01
G. theisiE95
G. triserrataC01
G. versicolor (Walckenaer 1841) [=Plectana versicolor]BAU82

*Gasteracantha (Gasteracantha) cancriformis (Linnaeus 1767)SC97 [=Aranea cancriformisC01, Plectana cancriformisC01; incl. Gasteracantha atlanticaC01, G. callidaC01, Epeira cancerC01, G. conchataC01, Plectana ellipsoidesC01, Aranea hexacantha Fabricius 1793BAU82, Gasteracantha piceaC01, G. rubiginosaC01, G. velitarisC01, G. vittata Thorell 1860C01, T94]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AM11] Araujo, D., V. F. Mattos, A. M. Giroti, M. G. Kraeski, L. S. Carvalho & A. D. Brescovit. 2011. Cytogenetical characterization of six orb-weaver species and review of cytogenetical data for Araneidae. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 337–344.

[BAU82] Barrion, A. A., D. M. Amalin & V. L. Ulilang. 1982. New record of Philippine spiny-bellied orb-weavers (Aranea: Araneidae). Philippine Agriculturist 65: 331–338.

[C01] Cambridge, F. O. P. 1901. On a collection of spiders from the Bahama Islands, made by J. L. Bonhote, Esq.; with characters of a new genus and species of Mygalomorphae. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 322–332.

[E95] Elgar, M. A. 1995. The duration of copulation in spiders: comparative patterns. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 52: 1–11.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[HU08] Hore, U., & V. P. Uniyal. 2008. Diversity and composition of spider assemblages in five vegetation types of the Terai Conservation Area, India. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 251–258.

[J98] Jäger, P. 1998. Das Typenmaterial der Spinnentiere (Arachnida: Acari, Amblypygi, Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Scorpiones, Uropygi) aus dem Museum Wiesbaden. Jahrbuecher des Nassauischen Vereins fuer Naturkunde 119: 81–91.

[K92] Karsch, F. 1892. Arachniden von Ceylon und von Minikoy gesammelt von den Herren Doctoren P. und F. Sarasin. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36 (2): 267–310.

[KK90] Koch, L., & E. Keyserling. 1884–1890. Die Arachniden Australiens nach der Natur beschrieben und abgebildet vol. 2. Bauer & Raspe: Nürnberg.

[M72] Monroe, R. 1972. Chelicerate type-specimens in the Queensland Museum. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 16 (2): 291–307.

[R13] Rainbow, W. J. 1913. Arachnida from the Solomon Islands. Records of the Australian Museum 10 (1): 1–16.

[SC97] Scharff, N., & J. A. Coddington. 1997. A phylogenetic analysis of the orb-weaving spider family Araneidae (Arachnida, Araneae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 120: 355–434.

[S69] Stoliczka, F. 1869. Contribution to the knowledge of Indian Arachnoidea. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 38 pt 2 (4): 201–251, pls 18–20.

[T94] Thorell, T. 1894. Förteckning öfver Arachnider från Java och närgränsande öar, insamlade af docenten D:r Carl Aurivillius; jemte beskrifingar å några sydasiatiska och sydamerikanska Spindlar. Bihang till K. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar 20 pt 4 (4): 1–63.

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