Three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus, copyright Jack Wolf.

Belongs within: Cottioidei.

The Gasterosteidae are a group of fishes with subthoracic pelvic fins placed below the pectoral fins. They are found in both fresh and marine waters in cooler regions of the Northern Hemisphere.

Gasterosteidae [Aulorhynchidae, Gasterosteales, Protosyngnathidae]
|--Hypoptychus [Hypoptychidae]ND13
| `--H. dybowskiiND13
`--+--Aulorhynchus flavidusND13
`--+--Aulichthys japonicusND13
`--+--Apeltes quadracus (Mitchill 1815)ND13, K02
`--Gasterosteus Linnaeus 1758ND13, L58
|--G. aculeatus Linnaeus 1758K02
| |--G. a. aculeatusI92
| |--G. a. microcephalus (Girard 1854)I92
| `--G. a. williamsoniUSDI77
|--G. apodusG88
|--G. doryssusBL87
|--G. occidentalis Linnaeus 1758L58
|--G. pungitius Linnaeus 1758L58
|--G. spinachia Linnaeus 1758L58
|--G. spinarella Linnaeus 1758L58
`--G. wheatlandi Putnam 1867K02

Gasterosteidae incertae sedis:
Culaea inconstansK02
Spinachia spinachia (Linnaeus 1758)LD09
|--P. hexacanthus (Schtylko 1934)P93
|--P. kaibarae (Tanaka 1915)I92
|--P. pungitiusK02
| |--P. p. pungitiusK02
| `--P. p. occidentalis (Cuvier 1829)K02
|--P. sinensisK02
`--P. tymensis (Nikolsky 1889)I92 [=P. pungitius tymensisT90]
Protosyngnathus sumatrensis von der Marck 1876P93

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BL87] Bell, M. A., & P. Legendre. 1987. Multicharacter chronological clustering in a sequence of fossil sticklebacks. Systematic Zoology 36 (1): 52–61.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[K02] Krueger, W. H. 2002. Sticklebacks. Family Gasterosteidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 312–321. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[LD09] Li, B., A. Dettaï, C. Cruaud, A. Couloux, M. Desoutter-Meniger & G. Lecointre. 2009. RNF213, a new nuclear marker for acanthomorph phylogeny. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 50: 345–363.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[ND13] Near, T. J., A. Dornburg, R. I. Eytan, B. P. Keck, W. L. Smith, K. L. Kuhn, J. A. Moore, S. A. Price, F. T. Burbrink, M. Friedman & P. C. Wainwright. 2013. Phylogeny and tempo of diversification in the superradiation of spiny-rayed fishes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 110 (31): 12738–12743.

[P93] Patterson, C. 1993. Osteichthyes: Teleostei. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 621–656. Chapman & Hall: London.

[T90] Taguchi, S. 1990. Nihon no Sakana. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[USDI77] United States Department of the Interior. 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants—republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420–36431.

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