Gemmula (Gemmula)

Gemmula gemmulina, photographed by Jan Delsing.

Belongs within: Turridae.

The type subgenus of the genus Gemmula is a group of relatively large, tall-spired conoids found in warmer waters (Powell 1966).

Characters (from Powell 1966): Shell rather large, 24–88 mm, elongate-fusiform, with tall spiral and long straight unnotched anterior canal. Protoconch tall, conical, polygyrate, axially costate. Adult sculpture of spiral keels and cords, peripheral keel mostly double, often flanged, always studded with gemmules, often cog-like in vertically fused pairs. Sinus deep and narrow, on peripheral carina. Operculum leaf-shaped, with terminal nucleus. Radula consisting of pair of wishbone-shaped marginals only, or with addition of central tooth which be vestigial to fully formed, unicuspid, with large broad base.

<==Gemmula Weinkauff 1875 (Gemmula)BK11
    |--G. (G.) hindsiana Berry 1958 [incl. Pleurotoma gemmata Reeve 1843 non Hinds 1843, *G. gemmata]P66
    |--G. (G.) aethiopica (Thiele 1925) [=Pleurotoma (G.) aethiopica]P66
    |--G. (G.) alternata (Conrad 1833) [=Pleurotoma alternata]P66
    |--G. (G.) amabilis (Weinkauff 1875) [=Pleurotoma amabilis]P66
    |--G. (G.) bimarginata (Suter 1917) [=Turris bimarginatus]P66
    |--G. (G.) birmanica (Vredenburg 1921) [=Pleurotoma (G.) birmanica]P66
    |--G. (G.) carodenta Harris 1937P66
    |--G. (G.) clifdenensis Powell 1942P66
    |--G. (G.) congener (Smith 1894) [=Pleurotoma congener]P66
    |    |--G. c. congenerP66
    |    |--G. c. cosmoi (Sykes 1930) [=Turris cosmoi]P66
    |    `--G. c. mekranica (Vredenburg 1925)P66 (see below for synonymy)
    |--G. (G.) dampierana Powell 1964P66
    |--G. (G.) diomedea Powell 1964P66, MG-H11 [=G. congener diomedeaP66]
    |--G. (G.) disjuncta Laws 1936P66
    |--G. (G.) ducalis (Thiele 1925) [=Pleurotoma (G.) ducalis]P66
    |--G. (G.) duplex (Suter 1917) [=Turris duplex]P66
    |--G. (G.) gellibrandensis Chapple 1934P66 [=Eugemmula gellibrandensisC47]
    |--G. (G.) gemmulina (Martens 1902) [=Pleurotoma (G.) gemmulina]P66
    |--G. (G.) gilchristi (Sowerby 1902) [=Pleurotoma gilchristi]P66
    |--G. (G.) graeffei (Weinkauff 1875)P66 (see below for synonymy)
    |--G. (G.) hawleyi (Iredale 1931) [=*Eugemmula hawleyi]P66
    |--G. (G.) hombroni Hedley 1922P66 (see below for synonymy)
    |--G. (G.) imitatrix (Martin 1916) [=Pleurotoma (Hemipleurotoma) imitatrix]P66
    |--G. (G.) iris (Vredenburg 1921) [=Pleurotoma (Hemipleurotoma) iris]P66
    |--G. (G.) kaiparaensis (Marshall 1918) [=Turris kaiparaensis]P66
    |--G. (G.) karangensis (Martin 1895) [=Pleurotoma karangensis]P66
    |--G. (G.) kieneri (Doumet 1840) [=Pleurotoma kieneri]P66
    |    |--G. k. kieneriP66
    |    `--G. k. ryukyuensis MacNeil 1960P66
    |--G. (G.) kishimaensis Shuto & Ueda 1963P66
    |--G. (G.) kotorai (Nomura & Zinbo 1935) [=Turris (G.) kotorai]P66
    |--G. (G.) lawsi Powell 1942P66
    |--G. (G.) longwoodensis Powell 1942P66
    |--G. (G.) margaritata (Marshall 1919) [=Turris margaritatus]P66
    |--G. (G.) margaritosa Casey 1904P66
    |--G. (G.) martini (Tesch 1915) [=Pleurotoma martini; incl. P. (G.) valdiviae Thiele 1925]P66
    |--G. (G.) miocoronifera Powell 1964P66
    |--G. (G.) monilifera (Pease 1860)P66 (see below for synonymy)
    |--G. (G.) murrayi Powell 1964P66
    |--G. (G.) orba Marwick 1931P66
    |--G. (G.) ornata (Marshall 1918) [=Turris ornatus]P66
    |--G. (G.) pakistanica (Eames 1952) [=Turris (G.) pakistanica]P66
    |--G. (G.) peraspera Marwick 1931P66
    |--G. (G.) periscelida (Dall 1889) [=Pleurotoma periscelida]P66
    |--G. (G.) polita (Marshall 1919) [=Turris politus]P66
    |--G. (G.) praesignis (Smith 1895) [=Pleurotoma praesignis]P66
    |--G. (G.) pulchella Shuto 1961 [=G. granosa pulchella]P66
    |--G. (G.) rarimaculata (Kuroda & Oyama 1971)W94, PK11
    |--G. (G.) reticulata (Marshall 1919) [=Turris reticulatus]P66
    |--G. (G.) rotatilis (Martens 1902) [=Pleurotoma (G.) rotatilis]P66
    |--G. (G.) samueli (Tenison-Woods 1879)P66 [=Pleurotoma samueliP66, Eugemmula samueliC47]
    |--G. (G.) sibogae (Schepman 1913) [=Pleurotoma sibogae]P66
    |--G. (G.) sibukoensis Powell 1964P66
    |--G. (G.) sindiensis (Vredenburg 1925) [=Pleurotoma (G.) sindiensis]P66
    |--G. (G.) soriensis (Eames 1952) [=Turris (G.) soriensis]P66
    |--G. (G.) speciosa (Reeve 1833)P66, DK08 (see below for synonymy)
    |--G. (G.) thyrsus (Vredenburg 1921) [=Pleurotoma (G.) thyrsus]P66
    |--G. (G.) vagata (Smith 1895) [=Pleurotoma vagata]P66
    `--G. (G.) waihaoensis Finlay 1924 [=Turris regius Suter 1917 (preoc.)]P66

Gemmula (Gemmula) congener mekranica (Vredenburg 1925)P66 [=Pleurotoma (Gemmula) congener var. mekranicaF27; incl. P. coronifer Martin 1879 non Bellardi 1877F27]

Gemmula (Gemmula) graeffei (Weinkauff 1875)P66 [=Pleurotoma (G.) graeffeiP66, Eugemmula graeffeiC47; incl. E. punctata Brazier 1876C47]

Gemmula (Gemmula) hombroni Hedley 1922P66 [=Eugemmula hombroniC47, Pleurotoma fusca Hombron & Jacquinot 1853 non Reeve 1843P66, Drillia fuscaH09]

Gemmula (Gemmula) monilifera (Pease 1860)P66 [=Turris moniliferaP66, Pleurotoma moniliferaK65, Turritella moniliferaK65; incl. Turris aelomitra Dall in Tinker 1952P66]

Gemmula (Gemmula) speciosa (Reeve 1833)P66, DK08 [=Pleurotoma speciosaP66; incl. P. carinata Gray in Griffith & Pidgeon 1834P66, Gemmula carinataH22, Turris (Gemmula) guadurensis Melvill 1917P66]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BK11] Bouchet, P., Y. I. Kantor, A. Sysoev & N. Puillandre. 2011. A new operational classification of the Conoidea (Gastropoda). Journal of Molluscan Studies 77: 273–308.

[C47] Cotton, B. C. 1947. Australian Recent and Tertiary Turridae. Field Naturalists’ Section of the Royal Society of South Australia Conchology Club, Publication 4: 1–34.

[DK08] Darragh, T. A., & G. W. Kendrick. 2008. Silicified Eocene molluscs from the Lower Murchison district, Southern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (3): 217–246.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[H22] Hedley, C. 1922. A revision of the Australian Turridae. Records of the Australian Museum 13 (6): 213–359, pls 42–56.

[K65] Kay, E. A. 1965. Marine molluscs in the Cuming collection, British Museum (Natural History) described by William Harper Pease. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Zoology Supplement 1: 1–96, 14 pls.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[P66] Powell, A. W. B. 1966. The molluscan families Speightiidae and Turridae: an evaluation of the valid taxa, both Recent and fossil, with lists of characteristic species. Bulletin of the Auckland Institute and Museum 5: 1–184, pls 1–23.

[PK11] Puillandre, N., Y. I. Kantor, A. Sysoev, A. Couloux, C. Meyer, T. Rawlings, J. A. Todd & P. Bouchet. 2011. The dragon tamed? A molecular phylogeny of the Conoidea (Gastropoda). Journal of Molluscan Studies 77: 259–272.

[W94] Wilson, B. 1994. Australian Marine Shells vol. 2. Prosobranch Gastropods. Part Two (Neogastropods). Odyssey Publishing: Kallaroo (Western Australia).

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