Spring gentian Gentiana verna, copyright Böhringer Friedrich.

Belongs within: Gentianeae.
Contains: Gentiana section AmarellaGentiana section Arctophila, Gentiana section Frigidae, Gentiana section Chondrophyllae, Gentiana section Cruciata, Gentiana section Pneumonanthe, Gentiana section Cyane.

Gentiana is a cosmopolitan genus of mostly erect herbs, with the highest diversity of species in Asia (Struwe et al. 2002).

Characters (from Struwe et al. 2002): Annual, biennial, or perennial herbs. Stem usually erect, sometimes ascending, simple or branched, mostly quadrangular. Leaves opposite, very rarely whorled. Uppermost leaf pair sometimes forming an involucre around the flowers. Flowers 5-merous (rarely 4- to 8-merous), arranged in simple dichasia, terminal clusters, axillary whorls, or borne singly. Calyx divided shallowly up to the middle, sometimes split to the base on one side. Calyx usually provided with intracalycine membrane, rarely without. Corolla of various shapes, can be tubular, infundibuliform, obconical, hypocrateriform, campanulate, urniform, or rarely rotate. Corolla tube usually longer than corolla lobes, throat rarely provided with fimbriae. Symmetrical or asymmetrical plicae usually present, sometimes fimbriate. Stamens inserted in corolla tube. Filaments usually straight, symmetrical, winged at base, filiform above. Anthers sometimes connate. Ovary sessile or on gynophore, nectary glands present at base. Style usually short or absent, sometimes elongated. Stigmatic lobes often free, sometimes connate. Seeds winged or unwinged.

Gentiana Linnaeus 1753A61 (see below for synonymy)
|--+--G. sect. FrigidaeSK02
| `--+--G. sect. ChondrophyllaeSK02
| |--G. sect. CruciataSK02
| `--G. sect. PneumonantheSK02
`--+--+--G. sect. CyaneSK02
| `--G. sect. GentianaSK02 [incl. G. sect. AsteriasG39]
| |--*G. lutea Linnaeus 1753SK02 [=Asterias luteaG39, Swertia luteaG39]
| |--G. gaudiniana [incl. G. spuria]G39
| |--G. punctataSK02 [=Pnemonanthe punctataG39; incl. G. campanulataG39, P. campanulataG39]
| |--G. purpureaBC02 [=Coelanthe purpureaG39]
| | |--G. p. var. purpureaG39
| | |--G. p. var. camtschatica Grisebach 1839G39
| | `--G. p. var. nana Grisebach 1839 non G. nanaG39
| `--G. rubra [incl. G. hybrida, G. thomasii]G39
`--+--G. sect. CiminalisSK02
| |--G. alpinaSK02 [=G. acaulis γ alpinaG39]
| `--G. clusiiSK02
`--G. sect. CalathianaeSK02
|--G. bavaricaSK02
|--G. nivalisBC02 [incl. G. azureaG39, G. minimaG39]
|--G. schleicheriBC02
|--G. terglouensisSK02
`--G. vernaSK02 [=Hippion vernumG39; incl. H. elongatumG39]
|--G. v. var. vernaG39
`--G. v. var. alata (see below for synonymy)G39

Gentiana incertae sedis:
G. achalensis Gilg 1896G16
G. albido-coerulea Gilg 1896G16
G. albo-rosea Gilg 1916G16
G. alopecuroidesG39
G. amoena Wedd. 1859G16
G. androtricha Gilg 1916G16
G. anthosphaera Gilg in Fedde 1906G16
G. arenarioides Gilg in Fedde 1906G16
G. armerioides Grisebach in Lechler 1857G16
G. atroviolacea Gilg 1916G16
G. attenuata (Don) Grisebach in DC. 1845 [=Selatium attenuatum Don 1838]GT16
G. atuntsiensisJS02
G. bangii Gilg 1896G16
G. bellaBC02
G. bellatula Gilg 1913G16
G. benedictae Gilg 1916G16
G. bicolor Wedd. 1861G16
G. bockii Gilg 1916G16
G. brachyphyllaBC02 [=G. verna β brachyphyllaG39; incl. G. acutifloraG39]
G. brachysepala Gilg 1896G16
G. brandtiana Gilg 1913 [incl. G. limoselloides var. pusillima Wedd. 1859]G16
G. bridgesii Gilg 1896G16
G. briquetiana Gilg 1916G16
G. bromifolia Griseb. 1874G16
G. brunneo-tincta Gilg in Fedde 1906G16
G. bryoidesO88
G. buchtienii Gilg 1916G16
G. bulgaricaJS02
G. burkilliiO88
G. calanchoides Gilg 1896G16
G. calcarea Gilg in Fedde 1906G16
G. ‘campanuloides’ Gilg 1896 non Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. 1820G16
G. cardiophylla Gilg 1916G16
G. carinata [=Eurythalia carinata Don 1836]G39
G. carneo-rubra Gilg 1916 (see below for synonymy)G16
G. centamalensis Gilg 1906G16
G. cernua H.B.K. 1818G16
G. chrysantha Gilg 1916G16
G. chrysosphaera Gilg 1916G16
G. chrysotaenia Gilg 1916G16
G. clarenii Gilg 1913G16
G. claytonioides Gilg 1896G16
G. coccinea R. & Pav. ex Don 1838 [=Selatium coccineum Don 1838]G16
G. comarapana Gilg 1916G16
G. contorta Don 1836G39
G. corallina Gilg in Fedde 1906G16
G. coronata [=Eurythalia coronata]G39
G. corymbosa H.B.K. 1818 [incl. G. congesta Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. f. 1820]G16
G. cosmantha Grisebach 1874G16
G. crassulifolia Grisebach 1839 (see below for synonymy)G16
G. crassuloidesO88
G. crossolaema Wedd. 1859G16
G. cuspidata Grisebach 1839 [incl. G. quinquepartita Domb. ex Grisebach 1839]G16
G. dacrydioides Gilg 1896G16
G. dasyantha Gilg 1896G16
G. dasythamna Gilg 1916 [=G. primulifolia var. dilatata Wedd. 1859 non G. dilatata Grisebach 1839]G16
G. dianthoides H.B.K. 1818 [incl. G. chelonoides Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. 1820]G16
G. dielsiana Gilg 1896 [incl. G. hauthalii Gilg in Hauthal 1911, G. spectabilis Rusby 1896]G16
G. dilatata Grisebach 1839G16
G. dissitifolia Grisebach 1839G16
G. dolichantha Gilg 1906G16
G. dolichopoda Gilg 1916G16
G. dombeyana Wedd. 1859G16
G. donii Grisebach in DC. 1845 [incl. Selatium foliosum Don 1838]G16
G. dubiaG39
G. elwesiiO88
G. engleri Gilg 1896G16
G. ericothamna Gilg in Fedde 1906G16
G. erythrochrysea Gilg in Fedde 1906G16
G. eurysepala Gilg 1913G16
G. farreriJS02
G. fastigiata Bth. 1844G16
G. favratiJS02
G. fiebrigii Gilg in Fedde 1906G16
G. flaviflora (Grisebach) Gilg 1896 (see below for synonymy)G16
G. florida Grisebach 1879G16
G. formosanaJS02
G. formosissima (Don) Gilg 1916 (see below for synonymy)G16
G. fruticulosa Domb. ex Weddell 1859 [incl. G. subulata Domb. ex Weddell 1859]G16
G. gageoides Gilg 1896G16
G. gilioides Gilg 1896G16
G. gilliesii Gilg 1896 (see below for synonymy)G16
G. gracilis H.B.K. 1818G16
G. graebneriana Gilg 1916G16
G. graminea H.B.K. 1818 [incl. G. linifolia Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. 1820]G16
G. gynophora Gilg 1896 [incl. G. seminuda Rusby 1896]G16
G. hebenstreidtioides Gilg 1916G16
G. helianthemoides Gilg 1896G16
G. herzogii Gilg 1916G16
G. hieronymi Gilg 1896G16
G. hirculus Grisebach 1839G16
G. hookeri Grisebach 1839 [=G. jamesonii Grisebach 1839 non Hook. 1837]G16
G. huxleyiO88
G. hypericoides Gilg 1896G16
G. hyssopifolia H.B.K. 1818G16
G. ignea Gilg in Fedde 1906G16
G. imberbis Grisebach 1874G16
G. inaequicalyx Gilg 1896 [incl. G. mandoni Rusby 1896]G16
G. incurva Hook. 1831 [=Selatium incurvum Don 1838; incl. G. flavido-flammea Gilg in Fedde 1906]G16
G. infelixO88
G. jamesoni Hook. 1837 (see below for synonymy)G16
G. kareliniiO88
G. kaufmannianaJS02
G. kochianaBC02
G. krauseana Gilg in Fedde 1906G16
G. kuntzei Gilg 1896 [incl. G. cochabambensis Rusby 1896, G. hygrophiloides Gilg in Fedde 1906]G16
G. kurroo [=Pneumonanthe kurroo Don 1836]G39
G. kurtzii Gilg 1916G16
G. kusnezowii Gilg 1896 [incl. G. virgata Rusby 1896]G16
G. ‘kusnezowii’ Franch. 1896 non Gilg 1896G16
G. lacerulataO88
G. lactea Phil. 1895G16
G. lancifolia Gilg 1896G16
G. larecajensis Gilg 1916G16
G. lavradioides Gilg in Fedde 1906G16
G. lehmannii Gilg 1896G16
G. leucomalaenaO88
G. lilacina Gilg in Fedde 1906G16
G. lilacino-flavescens Gilg 1916G16
G. limoselloides H.B.K. 1818 [incl. G. peduncularis Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. 1820]G16
G. liniflora H.B.K. 1818G16 (see below for synonymy)
G. linoidesBC02
G. lithophila Gilg 1916G16
G. lobbii Gilg 1916G16
G. lobelioides Gilg 1916G16
G. longibarbata Gilg 1896G16
G. ludlowiiO88
G. lurido-violacea Gilg in Fedde 1906G16
G. lythroides Gilg 1916G16
G. macroclada Gilg in Fedde 1906G16
G. macrorrhiza Gilg 1916G16
G. magellanica Gaud. 1826 (see below for synonymy)G16
G. ‘mandonii’ Gilg 1916 non G. mandoni Rusby 1896G16
G. manshuricaJS02
G. marchailhouanaJS02
G. mathewsii Gilg 1916 [=G. liniflora var. gracilis Grisebach 1839 non G. gracilis H.B.K. 1818]G16
G. meianthaO88
G. mendocina Gilg 1916G16
G. mesembrianthemoides Gilg in Fedde 1906G16
G. meyeniana Grisebach 1839 [=G. meyenii Grisebach in Meyen 1843]G16
G. micansO88
G. mitynofanaG39
G. modesta Phil. 1857G16
G. multicaulis (Don) Gilg 1896 [=Selatium multicaule Don 1838; incl. G. pavonii Grisebach 1845]G16
G. multiflora Grisebach 1879G16
G. muscoides Gilg in Fedde 1906G16
G. myriantha Gilg in Fedde 1906G16
G. narcissoides Gilg 1916G16
G. nevadensis Gilg 1896G16
G. nigricansG39
G. nitida Grisebach 1839G16
G. nummularifolia Grisebach 1839 [incl. G. monnierioides Benth. 1846]G16
G. odontosepala Gilg in Fedde 1906G16
G. olgaeJS02
G. orbicularisJS02
G. oreosilene Gilg in Fedde 1906G16
G. orobanchoides Gilg 1896G16
G. ottonis Phil. 1864 [incl. G. hexamera Philippi 1873, G. ottonis var. hexamera (Philippi) Reiche 1910]G16
G. pachystemon Gilg 1916G16
G. palcana Gilg 1916 [=G. cerastioides var. emarginata Gilg 1896]G16
G. pallensG39
G. pallide-lilacina Gilg 1916G16
G. paludicola Gilg in Fedde 1906G16
G. parviflora (Griseb.) Gilg 1896 (see below for synonymy)G16
G. pearcei Phil. 1861G16
G. pedunculata [=Eurythalia pedunculata Don 1836]G39
G. pentastictaO88
G. petrophila Gilg in Fedde 1906G16
G. phyllocalyxO88
G. pilgeriana Gilg 1916G16
G. poculifera Gilg 1913G16
G. porphyrantha Gilg in Fedde 1906G16
G. potamophila Gilg 1916G16
G. praticola Gilg 1916G16
G. primulifolia Grisebach 1839G16
G. primuloides Gilg 1916G16
G. procera Holm 1901CD07
G. productaSK02
G. prolataO88
G. pseudocrassula Gilg in Fedde 1906G16
G. pseudolycopodium Gilg in Fedde 1906G16
G. (subg. Dolichocarpa) pudicaBC02
G. pulla Grisebach 1874G16
G. punicea Wedd. 1859G16
G. purpureiflora Gilg 1916G16
G. radicansO88
G. radicata Grisebach 1839 [incl. G. barbeyana Gilg 1896]G16
G. raimondiana Wedd. 1861G16
G. rigescensJS02
G. rima Don 1838G16
G. riojae Gilg 1896G16
G. rivularisG39
G. roseo-lilacina Gilg in Fedde 1906G16
G. rostaniJS02
G. royleanaG39
G. rupicola H.B.K. 1818 (see below for synonymy)G16
G. sabbatioides Gilg 1896G16
G. sanctorum Gilg in Fedde 1906G16
G. sandiensis Gilg in Fedde 1906G16
G. saxicola Grisebach 1839G16
G. saxifragoides H.B.K. 1818G16
G. scabraJS02
G. scarlatiflora Gilg 1903G16
G. scarlatina Gilg in Fedde 1906G16
G. scarlatinostriata Gilg 1916G16
G. schistocalyxJS02
G. scopulorum Wedd. 1859G16
G. selatium Grisebach in DC. 1845 [incl. Selatium diffusum Don 1838]G16
G. serraBC02
G. setipes Gilg 1916G16
G. sikkimensisJS02
G. silenoides Gilg 1896G16
G. sino-ornataJS02
G. soratensis Gilg 1896G16
G. speciosissima Gilg 1896G16
G. splendens Gilg 1916G16
G. stellarioides Grisebach 1839G16
G. stenosepala Gilg 1896G16
G. stipitataO88
G. stricticaulis Gilg 1916G16
G. strictifloraJS02
G. stuebelii Gilg 1896 (see below for synonymy)G16
G. stylophoraBC02
G. stylosaO88
G. suffrutescensJS02
G. sulphurea Gilg 1896G16
G. tamitani Azara 1809G16
G. tarapacana Gilg 1896G16
G. thiosphaera Gilg in Fedde 1906G16
G. tianscanicaJS02
G. tibeticaO88
G. totorensis Gilg 1916G16
G. trichostemma Wedd. 1859G16
G. tristicha Gilg in Fedde 1906G16
G. tubulosa Gilg 1896G16
G. uchiyamanaJS02
G. umbellata Ruiz & Pav. ex Don 1838 [incl. G. ruizii Grisebach in DC. 1845]G16
G. vaginalis Grisebach 1839G16
G. valdiviana Phil. 1895G16
G. vernayiO88
G. ‘verticillata’ Wedd. 1859 non L. 1759G16
G. villarsiiJS02
G. violacea Ruiz & Pav. ex Don 1838 [=Glyphospermum violaceum Don 1838; incl. Ge. ericoides Grisebach 1839]G16
G. vvedenskyiJS02
G. weberbaueri Gilg in Fedde 1906G16
G. yunnanensisBC02
G. sect. AmarellaG39
G. sect. ArctophilaG39
G. sect. CoelantheG39
|--G. burseriG39
`--G. pannonica [=Pneumonanthe pannonica; incl. P. purpurea, Gentiana semifida]G39
G. sect. CrossopetalumG39
|--G. barbataJS02 [=Gentiana detonsa β barbataG39]
|--G. ciliata [=Gentianella ciliata, Hippion ciliatum; incl. H. dentosum, Crosspetalum gentianoides]G39
| |--G. c. var. ciliataG39
| `--G. c. var. humilis non G. humilis [incl. Gentianella fimbriata]G39
|--G. crinita [incl. Gentiana fimbriata]G39
|--G. detonsa [incl. Gentiana brachypetala, Gentiana serrata, Gentianella serrata]G39
`--G. ventricosa Grisebach 1839G39
G. sect. Cyclostigma Grisebach 1839G39
|--G. bavarica [=Hippion bavaricum; incl. G. carpatica, G. serpyllifolia]G39
| |--G. b. var. bavaricaG39
| |--G. b. var. alata Grisebach 1839 non G. verna var. alataG39
| `--G. b. var. imbricata (see below for synonymy)G39
|--G. imbricata non G. antarctica var. imbricata Kirk 1895 [incl. Hippion pusillum, G. tergloviensis]G39
|--G. pumilaG39
`--G. utriculosa [=Hippion utriculosum]G39
G. (sect. Thylacites) acaulis [=Pneumonanthe acaulis; incl. Ciminalis grandiflora]G39
|--G. a. var. acaulisG39
`--G. a. var. angustifolia non G. angustifoliaG39
G. (sect. Tretorrhiza) douglasianaG39

Gentiana Linnaeus 1753A61 [incl. CalathianaBGS05, ChondrophyllaBGS05, FavargeraBGS05, GentianodesBGS05, HolubogentiaBGS05, KuepferellaBGS05, MehraeaBGS05, QaiseraBGS05, TretorhizaBGS05]

Gentiana bavarica var. imbricata nec G. antarctica var. imbricata Kirk 1895 nec G. imbricata [incl. G. rotundifolia]G39

Gentiana carneo-rubra Gilg 1916 [=G. limoselloides var. tubulosa Grisebach 1839, G. tubulosa (Grisebach) Gilg 1906 non Gilg 1896]G16

Gentiana crassulifolia Grisebach 1839 [incl. G. nummulariaefolia Bth. 1846 non G. nummularifolia Grisebach 1839, G. selaginifolia Grisebach 1849, G. crassulifolia var. selaginifolia Gilg 1896]G16

Gentiana flaviflora (Grisebach) Gilg 1896 [=G. foliosa var. flaviflora Grisebach in DC. 1845; incl. G. cerastioides var. chimborazensis Grisebach in DC. 1845, G. foliosa var. humilis Grisebach 1839 nec G. humilis nec G. ciliata β humilis]G16

Gentiana formosissima (Don) Gilg 1916 [=Eudoxia formosissima Don 1838; incl. G. herrediana Raim. ex Wedd. 1861, G. magniflora R. & Pav. ex Gilg 1896, Eudoxia pendula Don 1838]G16

Gentiana gilliesii Gilg 1896 [incl. G. coerulescens Gill. ex Wedd. 1859, G. diffusa var. mendozensis Grisebach 1839, G. multicaulis Gill. ex Grisebach 1839 non Don 1838]G16

Gentiana jamesoni Hook. 1837 [incl. G. arcuata Grisebach 1839, G. inflata Grisebach 1839, G. pendula Grisebach 1839]G16

Gentiana liniflora H.B.K. 1818G16 [incl. G. coerulea R. & Pav. ex Grisebach 1839G16, G. nivalis var. coeruleaG39, G. floribunda Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. 1820G16]

Gentiana magellanica Gaud. 1826 [incl. G. araucana Phil. 1895, G. patagonica var. darwinii Grisebach 1839, G. patagonica Grisebach 1839]G16

Gentiana parviflora (Griseb.) Gilg 1896 [=G. coerulescens var. parviflora Griseb. 1879; incl. G. galanderi Hieron. 1881 (n. n.)]G16

Gentiana rupicola H.B.K. 1818 [incl. G. campanuloides Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. 1820, G. rupicola f. crassifolia Bth. 1846, G. rupicola f. grandiflora Bth. 1846, G. rupicola var. grandifolia Grisebach 1839]G16

Gentiana stuebelii Gilg 1896 [incl. G. umbellata Gilg in Fedde 1906 nec Ruiz & Pav. ex Don 1838 nec G. pleurogynoides var. umbellata Kirk 1895]G16

Gentiana verna var. alata [incl. G. aestiva, Hippion aestivum, G. angulosa, G. discolor, G. jirasekii, Hippion sexfidum]G39

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BGS05] Banfi, E., G. Galasso & A. Soldano. 2005. Notes on systematics and taxonomy for the Italian vascular flora. 1. Atti Soc. It. Sci. Nat. Museo Civ. Stor. Nat. Milano 146 (2): 219–244.

[BC02] Bouman, F., L. Cobb, N. Devente, V. Goethals, P. J. M. Maas & E. Smets. 2002. The seeds of Gentianaceae. In: Struwe, L., & V. A. Albert (eds) Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History pp. 498–572. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1–E44.

[G16] Gilg, E. 1916. Gentianaceae andinae. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 54 (Beiblatt 118): 4–122.

[G39] Grisebach, A. H. R. 1839. Genera et Species Gentianearum adjectis observationibus quibusdam phytogeographicis. J. G. Cotta: Stuttgardt.

[JS02] Jensen, S. R., & J. Schripsema. 2002. Chemotaxonomy and pharmacology of Gentianaceae. In: Struwe, L., & V. A. Albert (eds) Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History pp. 573–631. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[SK02] Struwe, L., J. W. Kadereit, J. Klackenberg, S. Nilsson, M. Thiv, K. B. von Hagen & V. A. Albert. 2002. Systematics, character evolution, and biogeography of Gentianaceae, including a new tribal and subtribal classification. In: Struwe, L., & V. A. Albert (eds) Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History pp. 21–309. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

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