Geodia cydonium, from here.

Belongs within: Tetractinellida.

The Geodiidae are a family of sponges characterised by a two-layered cortex, with ball-shaped spicules (sterrasters) in the inner layer. They are predominantly found on soft bottoms in the bathyal zone, but some species are found in dark habitats such as crevices in more shallow waters (Uriz 2002).

Characters (from Uriz 2002): Thickly encrusting, massive to globular growth forms with well-developed cortex. Cortex made of two differentiated layers: external layer fleshy and collagenous, with one of the variously specialised microscleres (euasters, spherules or microrhabds); inner layer filled with sterrasters. Euasters or microscleres may also be present in choanosome. Megascleres are regular, long-shafted triaenes, and oxeas.

|--Isops phlegraei Sollas 1880C94
|--Melophlus sarassinorum Thiele 1899MC15, FV09
|--Pachymatisma johnstoniaMC15, F79
|--Penares sollasi Thiele 1900MC15, BJ06
|--Sidonops alba (Kieschnick 1896) [=Synops alba]BJ06
| |--S. a. albaBJ06
| `--S. a. minor Hentschel 1912BJ06
| |--R. distincta (Thiele 1900) [=Coppatias distinctus]BJ06
| `--R. globostellata (Carter 1883)FV09
| |--G. antiquus (Hinde 1883)RB93
| `--G. deformis Hinde 1887RB93
| |--E. amissus Adams & Hooper 2001FV09
| |--E. discophorusPP64
| |--E. inaequalisK96
| |--E. lendenfeldi Sollas 1888MG-H11
| `--E. nobilis Thiele 1900BJ06
|--G. barretti (Bowerbank 1858)C94
|--G. cydoniumAS12
|--G. gibberosaG20
|--G. kuekenthali Thiele 1900BJ06
|--G. macandrewia Bowerbank 1858C94
|--G. muelleriF79
|--G. parkesi Pickett 1967F71
|--G. phlegraeiF79
|--G. rovinjensis Müller, Müller et al. 1983BJ06
`--G. sphaeroides (Kieschnick 1896) [=Cydonium sphaeroides]BJ06

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–493.

[BJ06] Barnich, R., & D. Janussen. 2006. Die Typen und Typoide des Naturmuseums Senckenberg, Nr. 86. Type catalogue of the Porifera in the collections of the Senckenberg Museum in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (2): 127–144.

[C94] Cedhagen, T. 1994. Taxonomy and biology of Hyrrokkin sarcophaga gen. et sp. n., a parasitic foraminiferan (Rosalinidae). Sarsia 79: 65–82.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[FV09] Fromont, J., & M. A. Vanderklift. 2009. Porifera (sponges) of Mermaid, Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, north Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 89–103.

[F79] Fry, W. G. 1979. Taxonomy, the individual and the sponge. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 49–80. Academic Press: London.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[K96] Kieschnick, O. 1896. Silicispongiae von Ternate nach den Sammlungen von Herrn Prof. Dr. W. Kükenthal. Zoologischer Anzeiger 19: 526–534.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[MC15] Morrow, C., & P. Cárdenas. 2015. Proposal for a revised classification of the Demospongiae (Porifera). Frontiers in Zoology 12: 7.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[RB93] Rigby, J. K., G. E. Budd, R. A. Wood & F. Debrenne. 1993. Porifera. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 71–99. Chapman & Hall: London.

Uriz, M. J. 2002. Family Geodiidae Gray, 1867. In: Hooper, J. N. A., & R. W. M. Van Soest (eds) Systema Porifera: A guide to the classification of sponges pp. 134–140. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers: New York.

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