Geomyidae

Variable pocket gopher Orthogeomys heterodus, copyright INBio.

Belongs within: Castorimorpha.
Contains: Thomomys, Geomys.

The Geomyidae, pocket gophers, are a group of burrowing rodents found in North and Central America. They share the presence of externally opening, fur-lined cheek pouches with the related kangaroo rats and pocket mice of the Heteromyidae, but are distinguished by their adaptions for a fossorial lifestyle (Hafner & Hafner 1983).

<==Geomyidae
    |  i. s.: ‘Sorex’ mexicanus Kerr 1792HH83
    |         DikkomysB74
    |         Heterogeomys hispidusG69
    |           |--H. h. hispidusG69
    |           |--H. h. isthmicusG69
    |           |--H. h. tehuantepecusG69
    |           `--H. h. torridusG69
    |         GregorymysMJ11
    |--EntoptychusMJ11 [EntoptychinaeHH83]
    |--PleurolicusMJ11 [PleurolicinaeHH83]
    |    `--P. sulcifronsTS96
    `--GeomyinaeHH83
         |--ParapliosaccomysHH83
         `--+--ThomomysGE05
            `--+--+--‘Thomomys’ bulbivorusFS15
               |  `--+--‘Thomomys’ townsendiiFS15
               |     `--+--‘Thomomys’ bottaeFS15
               |        |    |--T. b. bottaeBT40
               |        |    |--T. b. actuosusHHP83
               |        |    |--T. b. analogus Goldman 1938MB86
               |        |    |--T. b. anitaeG91
               |        |    |--T. b. basilicae Benson & Tillotson 1940 (see below for synonymy)BT40
               |        |    |--T. b. cultellusHHP83
               |        |    |--T. b. internatusHHP83
               |        |    |--T. b. jacinteusG91
               |        |    |--T. b. occipitalis Dice 1925BT40
               |        |    `--T. b. rubidusHHP83
               |        `--‘Thomomys’ umbrinusFS15
               |             |--T. u. umbinusMB86
               |             |--T. u. arriagensis Dalquest 1951MB86
               |             |--T. u. crassidens Nelson & Goldman 1934MB86
               |             |--T. u. durangae Nelson & Goldman 1934MB86
               |             |--T. u. goldmani Merriam 1901MB86
               |             |--T. u. musculus Nelson & Goldman 1934MB86
               |             |--T. u. newmaniMB86
               |             |--T. u. sheldoni Bailey 1915MB86
               |             `--T. u. zacatecae Nelson & Goldman 1934 [incl. T. u. enixus Nelson & Goldman 1934]MB86
               `--+--GeomysFS15
                  `--+--Zygogeomys trichopusFS15
                     `--+--+--+--‘Orthogeomys’ hispidusGE05
                        |  |  `--‘Orthogeomys’ laniusFS15
                        |  `--+--‘Orthogeomys’ underwoodiFS15
                        |     `--+--‘Orthogeomys’ cavatorFS15
                        |        `--+--‘Orthogeomys’ cherrieiFS15
                        |           `--+--‘Orthogeomys’ matagalpaeFS15
                        |              `--+--‘Orthogeomys’ dariensisFS15
                        |                 `--+--Macrogeomys heterodusHH83 [=O. (Macrogeomys) heterodusHH83, FS15]
                        |                    `--‘Orthogeomys’ thaeleriFS15
                        `--+--OrthogeomysFS15
                           |    |--O. cuniculusG69
                           |    `--O. (Orthogeomys) grandisHH83
                           |         |--O. g. grandisG69
                           |         |--O. g. alleniG69
                           |         |--O. g. alvarezi Schaldach 1966G69
                           |         |--O. g. carboG69
                           |         |--O. g. felipensisG69
                           |         |--O. g. nelsoniG69
                           |         `--O. g. scalopsG69
                           `--+--CratogeomysFS15
                              |    |--+--C. fumosusFS15
                              |    |  `--C. planicepsFS15
                              |    `--+--+--C. castanopsFS15
                              |       |  `--C. goldmaniFS15
                              |       `--+--C. perotensisFS15
                              |          `--+--C. fulvescensFS15
                              |             `--C. merriamiFS15
                              `--PappogeomysGE05
                                   |--P. alcorni Russell 1957R57
                                   |--P. bulleriGE05
                                   |--P. castanopsMB86
                                   |    |--P. c. castanopsMB86
                                   |    |--P. c. goldmani (Merriam 1895)MB86
                                   |    |--P. c. rubellus (Nelson & Goldman 1934)MB86
                                   |    |--P. c. subnubilus (Nelson & Goldman 1934)MB86
                                   |    `--P. c. surculus Russell 1968MB86
                                   |--P. fumosusIT07
                                   |--P. gymnurusHH83
                                   |--P. merriamiIT07
                                   |--P. neglectusIT07
                                   |--P. tylorhinusIT07
                                   `--P. zinseriIT07

Thomomys bottae basilicae Benson & Tillotson 1940 [=T. bottae occipitalis Benson & Tillotson 1939 non Dice 1925]BT40

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BT40] Benson, S. B., & D. F. Tillotson. 1940. A substitute name for Thomomys bottae occipitalis Benson and Tillotson. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 53: 93.

[B74] Bugge, J. 1974. The cephalic arterial system in insectivores, primates, rodents and lagomorphs, with special reference to the systematic classification. Acta Anatomica 87 (Suppl 62): 1–160.

[FS15] Faurby, S., & J.-C. Svenning. 2015. A species-level phylogeny of all extant and late Quaternary extinct mammals using a novel heuristic-hierarchical Bayesian approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 14–26.

[G69] Goodwin, G. G. 1969. Mammals from the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, in the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (1): 1–269, 40 pls.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[G91] Groves, C. P. 1991. A Theory of Human and Primate Evolution revised ed. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[HH83] Hafner, J. C., & M. S. Hafner. 1983. Evolutionary relationships of heteromyid rodents. In Biology of Desert Rodents. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 7: 3–29.

[HHP83] Hafner, J. C., D. J. Hafner, J. L. Patton & M. F. Smith. 1983. Contact zones and the genetics of differentiation in the pocket gopher Thomomys bottae (Rodentia: Geomyidae). Systematic Zoology 32 (1): 1–20.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PloS One 2 (3): e296.

[MB86] Matson, J. O. & R. H. Baker. 1986. Mammals of Zacatecas. Special Publications, Museum of Texas Tech University 24: 1–88.

[MJ11] Meredith, R. W., J. E. Janečka, J. Gatesy, O. A. Ryder, C. A. Fisher, E. C. Teeling, A. Goodbla, E. Eizirik, T. L. L. Simão, T. Stadler, D. L. Rabosky, R. L. Honeycutt, J. J. Flynn, C. M. Ingram, C. Steiner, T. L. Williams, T. J. Robinson, A. Burk-Herrick, M. Westerman, N. A. Ayoub, M. S. Springer & W. J. Murphy. 2011. Impacts of the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution and KPg extinction on mammal diversification. Science 334: 521–524.

[R57] Russell, R. J. 1957. A new species of pocket gopher (genus Pappogeomys) from Jalisco, México. University of Kansas Publications, Museum of Natural History 9 (11): 357–361.

[TS96] Tedford, R. H., J. B. Swinehart, C. C. Swisher III, D. R. Prothero, S. A. King & T. E. Tierney. 1996. The Whitneyan-Arikareean transition in the High Plains. In: Prothero, D. R., & R. J. Emry (eds) The Terrestrial Eocene–Oligocene Transition in North America pp. 312–334. Cambridge University Press.

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