Geophilus insculptus, copyright Trevor & Dilys Pendleton.

Belongs within: Myriapoda.
Contains: Mecistocephalinae.

The Geophilomorpha are a group of slender, extremely elongate centipedes that live in burrows or crevices. With a species, the number of body segments is usually constant in members of the Mecistocephalidae, but it may vary in members of the clade Adesmata (Bonato et al. 2003).

Characters (from Mundel 1990): Eyes absent; antennae with 14 segments. Number of pedal segments varying from 31 to over 180.

<==Geophilomorpha [Geophilida]
    |    |  i. s.: Stigmatogaster gracilis Meinert 1870BFM03
    |    |--Chilenophilidae [Chilenophilinae]K54
    |    |    |--RibautiaGEW01
    |    |    |--LestophilusK54
    |    |    |--Nesidiphilus Chamberlin 1915 [incl. Suturodes Chamberlin 1922]K54
    |    |    |    |--N. montecristi Kraus 1954K54
    |    |    |    `--N. tardus (Chamberlin 1922)K54
    |    |    `--Polycricus Saussure & Humbert 1872K54
    |    |         |--P. aequatorialis Silvestri 1902K54
    |    |         `--P. toltecus (Humbert & Saussure 1869) (see below for synonymy)K54
    |    `--GeophilidaeBFM03
    |         |--Pachymerium Koch 1847BFM03, B83 [Pachymeriidae]
    |         |    `--‘Geophilus’ attenuatus Say 1821BFM03 [incl. G. ferrugineus Koch 1835BFM03, Mecistocephalus ferrugineusN42]
    |         |--Geophilus Leach 1814 (see below for synonymy)B83
    |         |    |--G. flavidus [=Clinopodes flavidus; incl. G. electricus, G. montanus, Poabius nitens]B83
    |         |    |    |--G. f. flavidusA01
    |         |    |    `--G. f. escherichii Verh. 1896A01
    |         |    |--G. ganonotus Attems 1901A01
    |         |    |--G. infossulatus Attems 1901A01
    |         |    |--G. insculptus Attems 1895BFM03
    |         |    |--G. longissimus Risso 1826R26
    |         |    |--G. sibiricusA01
    |         |    `--G. simplex (see below for synonymy)B83
    |         `--Necrophloeophagus Newport 1842N42
    |              `--*N. longicornis [=Geophilus longicornis]N42
    `--Mecistocephalidae [Dicellophilidae]BFM03
         |    |  i. s.: Partygarrupius Verhoeff 1939BFM03
         |    |--Agnostrup Foddai, Bonato et al. 2003BFM03
         |    |    `--A. paucipes (Miyosi 1955)BFM03
         |    `--+--Nannarrup Foddai, Bonato et al. 2003BFM03
         |       |    `--*N. hoffmani Foddai, Bonato et al. 2003BFM03
         |       `--Arrup Chamberlin 1912 [incl. Nodocephalus Attems 1928, Prolamnonyx Silvestri 1919]BFM03
         |           |--A. holstii (Pocock 1895)BFM03
         |           `--+--*A. pylorus Chamberlin 1912BFM03
         |              `--A. dentatus (Takakuwa 1934)BFM03
                 |--Proterotaiwanella Bonato, Foddai & Minelli 2002BFM03
                 |    |--*P. tanabei Bonato, Foddai & Minelli 2002BFM03
                 |    `--P. sculptulata (Takakuwa 1936)BFM03
                 `--+--Anarrup Chamberlin 1920 [incl. Sundarrup Attems 1930]BFM03
                    |    |--*A. nesiotes Chamberlin 1920BFM03
                    |    `--A. flavipes (Attems 1930) [=*Sundarrup flavipes]BFM03
                    `--Dicellophilus Cook 1896BFM03
                         |--D. carniolensis (Koch 1847)BFM03
                         `--+--D. latifrons Takakuwa 1934BFM03
                            `--+--*D. limatus (Wood 1862)BFM03
                               `--D. anomalus (Chamberlin 1904)BFM03
Geophilomorpha incertae sedis:
    |--Orphnaeus brevilabiatus (Newport 1845) [=Geophilus brevilabiatus]K54
    `--Notiphilides maximilani (Humbert & Saussure 1870) (see below for synonymy)K55
  SchendylurusK55 [SchendylidaeM90, Schendylinae]
    `--S. pallidus Kraus 1955K55
  Strigamia Gray 1842B83 [LinotaeniidaeBFM03]
    |--S. acuminataA99
    `--S. maritimaCV16
  Zelanion antipodusMG06
  Gonibregmatus Newport 1842N42 [GonibregmatidaeM90]
    |--*G. cumingii Newport 1842N42
    |--G. plurimipesA99
    `--‘Geophilus’ walckenaeriN42
  Tuoba laticepsMC13
  Clinopodes Koch 1847B83
    `--C. linearisA99
  Dinogeophilus oligopodusA99
  Calciphilus abboti Chamberlin 1949RB93

Geophilus Leach 1814 [incl. Antronomalus Newp. 1844, Senipaeus Bergs. in Mein. 1866, Stenotaenia Koch 1847]B83

Geophilus simplex [incl. G. brevicornis, Senipaeus foveolatus, G. foveolatus, G. linearis, Stenotaenia linearis]B83

Notiphilides maximilani (Humbert & Saussure 1870) [=Notiphilus maximilani; incl. Keporya miranda Chamberlin 1941, Notiphilides maximilani miranda]K55

Polycricus toltecus (Humbert & Saussure 1869) [=Arthronomalus toltecus, A. (Polycricus) toltecus, Geophilus toltecus]K54

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A01] Attems, C. Graf. 1901. Myriopodák [Myriopoden]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 275–310. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[A99] Ax, P. 1999. Das System der Metazoa II. Ein Lehrbuch der phylogenetischen Systematik. Gustav Fisher Verlag: Stuttgart (translated: 2000. Multicellular Animals: The phylogenetic system of the Metazoa vol. 2. Springer).

[B83] Berlese, A. 1883. Acari, Myriopoda et Scorpiones hucusque in Italia reperta. Fascicle 4. Typis Fratelli Salmin: Patavii.

[BFM03] Bonato, L., D. Foddai & A. Minelli. 2003. Evolutionary trends and patterns in centipede segment number based on a cladistic analysis of Mecistocephalidae (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha). Systematic Entomology 28: 539–579.

[CV16] Cannon, J. T., B. C. Vellutini, J. Smith, III, F. Ronquist, U. Jondelius & A. Hejnol. 2016. Xenacoelomorpha is the sister group to Nephrozoa. Nature 530: 89–93.

[GEW01] Giribet, G., G. D. Edgecombe & W. C. Wheeler. 2001. Arthropod phylogeny based on eight molecular loci and morphology. Nature 413: 157–161.

[K54] Kraus, O. 1954. Myriapoden aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35 (5-6): 293–349.

[K55] Kraus, O. 1955. Myriapoden aus Peru, III. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (3-4): 173–200.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[MG06] Mallatt, J., & G. Giribet. 2006. Further use of nearly complete 28S and 18S rRNA genes to classify Ecdysozoa: 37 more arthropods and a kinorhynch. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40: 772–794.

[M90] Mundel, P. 1990. Chilopoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 819–833. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[N42] Newport, G. 1842. On some new genera of the class Myriapoda. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 10: 177–181.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[RB93] Ross, A. J., & D. E. G. Briggs. 1993. Arthropoda (Euthycarcinoidea and Myriapoda). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 357–361. Chapman & Hall: London.

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