Zonal geraniums Pelargonium × hortorum, copyright Forest & Kim Starr.

Belongs within: Malvidae.
Contains: Bersama, Geranium, Pelargonium.

The Geraniales are a group of plants with contorted corollas bearing nectaries outside the androecium, and capsular fruits. Members include the Geraniaceae, a family of mostly herbaceous plants. Species of Geraniaceae usually bear fruits with a prominent beak; members of the genus Erodium are known as heron’s bills or storksbills in reference to this feature. Garden geraniums are mostly species of the genus Pelargonium.

The Melianthales are a group of trees and shrubs with bird-pollinated flowers found in sub-Saharan Africa.

Characters (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Vessel elements with simple perforation plates; nodes also 3<:3<; lamina margins gland-toothed; inflorescence cymose; corolla contorted; nectary outside androecium, opposite calyx; anthers obdiplostemonous; gynoecium opposite petals, stigma dry; outer integument 2–3 cells across, inner integument 2–3 cells across; fruit capsular; seed testal.

    |    |--Platytheca galioidesT00, GK00
    |    `--Tremandra diffusaGK00
    |--Francoaceae [Bersamoideae, Ledocarpaceae, Melianthaceae, Melianthales, Melianthoideae, Vivianiaceae]APG16
    |    |--+--FrancoaAPG16
    |    |  `--Greyia [Greyiaceae]APG16
    |    |--+--BersamaAPG16
    |    |  `--Melianthus Tournefort 1694APG16, D01 [incl. Diplerisma Planchon 1851D01]
    |    |       |--M. comosusD01
    |    |       `--M. majorD01
    |    `--+--Rhynchothecoideae [Rhynchothecaceae]T00
    |       |--Viviania [Vivianiaceae, Vivianioideae]APG16
    |       |    `--V. marifoliaWM09
    |       `--LedocarpoideaeT00
    |            |--BalbisiaT00
    |            `--WendtiaT00
    |                 |--W. gracilisWM09
    |                 `--W. reynoldsiD03
         |--Hypseocharis bilobataWM09
         |--Macraea Lindl. 1828KC01
         |    |--S. inermeCV06
         |    |--S. marlothiiCV06
         |    |--S. peniculinumCV06
         |    `--S. rigidumJ54
         |    |--M. deserticolaCV06
         |    |--M. drudeanaCV06
         |    |--M. heliotropoidesD17
         |    |--M. ignorataCV06
         |    |--M. niveaD17
         |    |--M. senegalensisPP07
         |    `--M. trilobataCV06
              |--E. angustilobumK90
              |--E. aureumKM08
              |--E. botrysOS04
              |--E. brachycarpum [incl. E. obtusiplicatum]H93
              |--E. ciconiumH91
              |--E. cicutariumKM08
              |--E. crinitumM99
              |--E. cygnorumKM08
              |--E. glaucophyllumD17
              |--E. gruinumPT98
              |--E. laciniatumAGF98
              |--E. macrophyllumH93
              |--E. malacoidesPT98
              |--E. moschatumGK00
              |--E. pulverulentumD17
              |--E. stephanianumO88
              `--E. texanumH93

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AGF98] Abd El-Ghani, M. M., & A. G. Fahmy. 1998. Composition of and changes in the spontaneous flora of Feiran Oasis, S Sinai, Egypt, in the last 60 years. Willdenowia 28: 123–134.

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[APG16] Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181: 1–20.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[D17] Diels, L. 1917. Beiträge zur Flora der Zentral-Sahara und ihrer Pflanzengeographie. Nach der Sammelausbeute des Freiherrn Hans Geyr von Schweppenburg. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 54 (Beiblatt 120): 51–155.

[D01] Doweld, A. B. 2001. The systematic relevance of fruit and seed structure in Bersama and Melianthus (Melianthaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 227: 75–103.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255–260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[J54] Jacobsen, H. 1954. Handbuch der sukkulenten Pflanzen: Beschreibung und Kultur der Sukkulenten mit Ausnahme der Cactaceae vol. 1. Abromeitiella bis Euphorbia. Gustav Fischer Verlag: Jena.

[K90] Keighery, G. J. 1990. Vegetation and flora of Shark Bay, Western Australia. In: Berry, P. F., S. D. Bradshaw & B. R. Wilson (eds) Research in Shark Bay: Report of the France-Australe Bicentenary Expedition Committee pp. 61–87. Western Australian Museum.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11–19.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P., & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 15–78.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853–3858.

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