Gerromorpha

 Water measurer Hydrometra stagnorum, copyright Entomart.

Belongs within: Heteroptera.
Contains: Gerroidea.

The Gerromorpha are a group of predacious bugs usually associated with aquatic and semi-aquatic habitats. Members include the Mesoveliidae, a cosmopolitan group of slender, long-legged bugs mostly found along water edges though some flightless forms are associated with damp leaf litter. The Hebridae are small bugs, two millimetres or less in length, with two-segmented tarsi.

Hydrometridae are slender bugs with a markedly elongate head, many times longer than wide (Carver et al. 1991). They are known as ‘water measurers’ in reference to their slow manner of movement over the surface of the water.

Synapomorphies (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Head, thorax and part of abdomen covered with fine hydrophobic pile; adults with three pairs of head trichobothria inserted in deep pits; mandibular levers present; pretarsi with dorsal and ventral arolia, ventral arolium often highly modified with hydrofuge hairs; female genital tract with intricate gynatrial complex.

<==Gerromorpha [Amphibicoriomorpha, Amphibicorisae]
    |--Mesoveliidae [Mesovelioidea]GE05
    |    |  i. s.: Engynabis tenuisSP02
    |    |         SphongophoriellaSP02
    |    |         Karanabis [Karanabidae]GE05
    |    |           `--K. kiritshenkoiGE05
    |    |         Duncanovelia extensa Jell & Duncan 1986RJ93
    |    |         Austrovelia queenslandicaCGW91
    |    |         Phrynovelia papuaRD77
    |    |--MadeoveliinaeCGW91
    |    `--MesoveliinaeCGW91
    |         |--Cavaticovelia Andersen & Polhemus 1980B86
    |         |    `--C. aaa Gagné & Howarth 1975B86
    |         |--Speovelia Esaki 1929B86
    |         |    `--S. maritima Esaki 1929B86
    |         `--MesoveliaCGW91
    |              |--M. horvathiPH10
    |              |--M. hungerfordiCGW91
    |              |--M. indicaB86
    |              `--M. vittigeraCGW91
    `--+--Hebridae [Hebroidea, Naeogaeidae]GE05
       |    |--HyrcaninaeCGW91
       |    `--HebrinaeCGW91
       |         |--Merragata hackeriCGW91
       |         `--HebrusTBG00
       |              |--H. axillarisCGW91
       |              `--H. ruficepsTBG00
       `--+--GerroideaGE05
          `--HydrometroideaCGW91
               |--ParaphrynoveliidaeGE05
               `--+--Daniavelia [Macroveliidae]GE05
                  |    `--D. morsensisGE05
                  `--Hydrometridae [Hydrometrinae, Hydrometroidea]GE05
                       |--Carinametra burmensisGE05
                       `--+--Cretaceometra brasiliensisGE05
                          `--Hydrometra Latreille 1802L02
                               |--*H. stagnorum (Linnaeus 1758)L02, L58 [=Cimex (Linearis) stagnorumL02, L58]
                               |--H. aculeata Montr. 1864D14
                               |--H. fetaZS10
                               |--H. hoplogastraWEE70
                               |--H. papuanaPH10
                               |--H. risbeciCGW91
                               `--H. strigosaCGW91

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B86] Botosaneanu, L. 1986. Insecta: Heteroptera. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 620–621. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[D14] Distant, W. L. 1914. Rhynchota from New Caledonia and the surrounding islands. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 4 pp. 369–390, pls 11–12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[PH10] Pinder, A. M., S. A. Halse, R. J. Shiel & J. M. McRae. 2010. An arid zone awash with diversity: patterns in the distribution of aquatic invertebrates in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 78 (1): 205–246.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[SP02] Shcherbakov, D. E., & Yu. A. Popov. 2002. Superorder Cimicidea Laicharting, 1781: Order Hemiptera Linné, 1758. The bugs, cicadas, plantlice, scale insects, etc. [=Cimicida Laicharting, 1781, =Homoptera Leach, 1815+Heteroptera Latreille, 1810). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 143–157. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[TBG00] Tuzovskij, P., D. Benfatti & R. Gerecke. 2000. The water mite family Acherontacaridae Cook, 1967 nov. stat. and diagnosis of the superfamily Hydrovolzioidea Thor, 1905 (Acariformes, Hydrachnidia). Acarologia 41: 451–473.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *