Gigartinales

Rhodophyllis membranacea, copyright Gary W. Saunders.

Belongs within: Florideophycidae.
Contains: CallophyllisSphaerococcus, Gigartina, Iridaea, Chondrus, Mazzaella, Sarcothalia, Chondracanthus.

The Gigartinales are a diverse group of red algae in which the auxiliary cells of the carpogonium are transformed from ordinary vegetative cells or contained in special accessory systems. In most families the thallus is more or less erect though in Peyssonneliaceae it is prostrate.

Characters (from Womersley 1994): Thallus macroscopic, crustose or erect and frondose to much branched, rarely minute and parasitic; branches terete to compressed or flat, usually not calcified, cartilaginous to mucilaginous. Structure uniaxial or multiaxial, loosely filamentous to pseudo-parenchymatous. Cells varying in shape, uni- to multinucleate; rhodoplasts discoid, numerous per cell, without pyrenoids; pit-plugs without cap layers. Growth of branches and filaments apical. Reproduction: Sexual thalli monoecious or dioecious; procarpic or non-procarpic. Carpogonial branches usually situated on inner cortical cells, 3 to several cells long, straight or curved, inwardly or outwardly projecting, with the supporting cell mono- or polycarpogonial, with one or more connecting filaments from the fertilized carpogonium or other cells after fusion. Auxiliary cells in special accessory systems or branches or transformed from ordinary vegetative cells. Carposporophytes within the cortex, in protuberant cystocarps, or in surface nemathecia, with or without a filamentous enveloping tissue or pericarp. Spermatangia cut off from surface cortical cells. Tetrasporophytes crustose or erect, tetrasporangia derived from cortical cells or within nemathecia, usually terminal but intercalary in a few taxa, cruciately, zonately or irregularly divided. Life history usually triphasic, with isomorphic or heteromorphic gametophytes and tetrasporophytes.

<==Gigartinales [Gigartineae, Squamarieae]
    |  i. s.: Mastocarpus papillatusHSA03
    |         Nizymenia australisHSA03
    |--Acrosymphyton [Acrosymphytaceae]HJ08
    |    `--A. taylorii Abbott 1962HJ08
    |--Corynocystis Kraft in Kraft et al. 1999 [Corynocystaceae]HL09
    |    `--C. prostrata Kraft in Kraft et al. 1999HL09
    |--Portieria Zanardini 1851 [Rhizophyllidaceae]HL09
    |    |--P. hornemannii (Lyngbye) Silva in Silva et al. 1987 (see below for synonymy)HL09
    |    `--P. hornemannioidesHK90
    |--Hypnea Lamouroux 1813 [Hypneaceae]HL09
    |    |--H. cornuta (Kützing) Agardh 1851HS14
    |    |--H. esperii Bory de Saint-Vincent 1828 [incl. Fucus nootkanus]BS-V28
    |    |--H. japonicaBG16
    |    |--H. musciformis (Wulfen) Lamouroux 1813HJ08
    |    |--H. pannosa Agardh 1847HS14
    |    |--H. spinella (Agardh) Kützing 1847HS14
    |    `--H. valentiae (Turner) Montagne 1841HS14
    |--Cruoriaceae [Cruorieae]S57
    |    |--Actinococcus hennedyiG64
    |    |--CruoriaG64
    |    |    |--C. adhaerensG64
    |    |    `--C. pellitaG64
    |    `--Petrocelis Agardh 1852K98
    |         |--P. cruenta [incl. Cruoria pellita]G64
    |         |--P. franciscana Setchell & Gardner in Gardner 1917S57
    |         `--P. middendorffii (Ruprecht) Kjellman 1883S57
    |--Peyssonnelia Decaisne 1841 [Peyssonneliaceae]HL09
    |    |--P. atropurpureaPP64
    |    |--P. conchicolaK98
    |    |--P. guadalupensis Dawson 1960K98
    |    |--P. harveyana Agardh 1852K98
    |    |--P. inamoena Pilger 1911HL09
    |    |--P. pacifica Kylin 1925K98
    |    |--P. polymorphaPP64
    |    |--P. rubra (Greville) Agardh 1851L27
    |    `--P. squamariaPP64
    |--SolieriaceaeHJ08
    |    |--Turnerella mertensiana (Postels & Ruprecht) Schmitz 1889 [=Iridaea mertensiana]S57
    |    |--Agardhiella coulteri (Harvey) Setchell in Collins, Holden & Setchell 1897 (see below for synonymy)S57
    |    |--Opuntiella californica (Farlow) Kylin 1925S57
    |    |--Sarcodiotheca furcata (Setchell & Gardner) Kylin 1932 [=Anatheca furcata]S57
    |    |--EucheumaHK90
    |    |    |--E. arnoldii Weber-van Bosse 1928HS14
    |    |    |--E. denticulatum (Burman) Collins & Hervey 1917HJ08
    |    |    `--E. speciosumHK90
    |    |--SolieriaW03
    |    |    |--S. chordalisH04
    |    |    |--S. robusta (Greville) Kylin 1932HS14
    |    |    `--S. teneraW03
    |    |--Betaphycus speciosum (Sonder) Doty ex Silva 1996HS14
    |    |--Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty ex Silva 1996HS14
    |    `--Sarconema filiforme (Sonder) Kylin 1932HS14
    |--Kallymeniaceae [Kallymenieae]S57
    |    |--Pugetia fragilissima Kylin 1925S57
    |    |--Erythrophyllum delesserioides Agardh 1872S57
    |    |--CallophyllisS57
    |    |--Cystoclonium purpurascens [=Hypnea purpurascens]G64
    |    |--CallocolaxS57
    |    |    |--C. fungiformis Kylin 1925S57
    |    |    |--C. globulosis Dawson 1945S57
    |    |    `--C. neglectus Schmitz ex Batters 1895L27
    |    `--KallymeniaN10
    |         |--K. antarcticaGW97
    |         |--K. bleckiiN10
    |         |--K. microphyllaG64
    |         |--K. oblongifructa Setchell 1912 [=Callymenia oblongifructa, Iridaea oblongifructa]S57
    |         |--K. ornata (Postels & Ruprecht) Agardh 1851 [=Callymenia ornata]S57
    |         |--K. reniformis (Turner) Agardh 1842 [=Callymenia reniformis]S57
    |         `--K. tasmanicaHSA03
    |--Sphaerococcaceae [Sphaerococcieae, Sphaerococcoideae]L27
    |    |--SphaerococcusSK02
    |    |--Sarcocladia crateriformis Agardh 1876L27
    |    |--PhacelocarpusL27
    |    |    |--P. alatus Harvey 1855L27
    |    |    `--P. labillardieri (Mertens) Agardh 1852L27
    |    |--CalliblepharisL27
    |    |    |--C. ciliataG64
    |    |    |--C. jubataG64
    |    |    `--C. prolifera (Hooker & Harvey) Agardh 1876 [=Rhodymenia prolifera]L27
    |    |--SarcodiaL27
    |    |    |--S. flabellata Levring 1949L49
    |    |    |--S. grandifolia Levring 1949L49
    |    |    `--S. montagneana Agardh 1852L27
    |    `--CurdiaeaL27
    |         |--C. coriacea (Hooker & Harvey) Agardh 1876L27
    |         |--C. engelharti Agardh 1901L27
    |         `--C. laciniataL27
    |--GigartinaceaeS57
    |    |--GigartinaS57
    |    |--IridaeaS57
    |    |--ChondrusHG93
    |    |--MazzaellaHG93
    |    |--SarcothaliaHG93
    |    |--ChondracanthusHG93
    |    |--Rhodoglossum Agardh 1876HG93
    |    |    |--*R. lanceolatum (Harvey) Agardh 1876 [=Gigartina lanceolata Harvey 1860]HG93
    |    |    `--R. latissimum Agardh 1876S57
    |    |--Mychodea [Mychodeaceae]L27
    |    |    |--M. carnosaSK02
    |    |    |--M. foliosa (Harvey) Agardh 1876 [=Gymnogongrus foliosus]L27
    |    |    `--M. pusillaHK90
    |    |--Dicranema [Dicranemaceae]L27
    |    |    |--D. aciculare Agardh 1876L27
    |    |    |--D. grevillei Sonder 1845L27
    |    |    `--D. revolutumHK90
    |    `--DactylymeniaL27
    |         |--D. berggreni Agardh 1899 [incl. Rhodymenia ornata]L27
    |         |--D. digitata Agardh 1899L27
    |         `--D. laingii Agardh 1899L27
    |--RhodophyllidaceaeSK02
    |    |--Craspedocarpus erosus (Harvey) Schmitz. 1897 (see below for synonymy)L27
    |    |--Carpococcus linearis Agardh 1876L27
    |    |--Thysanocladia laxa Sonder 1852L27
    |    |--Rissonella verruculosaH04
    |    |--EuthoraS57
    |    |    |--E. cristataG64
    |    |    `--E. fruticulosa (Ruprecht) Agardh 1852S57
    |    `--RhodophyllisSK02
    |         |--R. acanthocarpa (Hooker & Harvey) Agardh 1876L27
    |         |--R. angustifrons Hooker & Harvey 1855L27
    |         |--R. appendiculata [incl. R. bifida-ciliata]G64
    |         |--R. bifidaG64
    |         |--R. gunnii Harvey 1845L27
    |         |--R. lacerata Hooker & Harvey 1855L27
    |         |--R. laingii Cotton 1908L27
    |         |--R. membranacea Hooker & Harvey 1845L27
    |         `--R. volansSK02
    |--AreschougiaceaeHS14
    |    |--Areschougia laurencia Hooker & Harvey 1847L27
    |    `--ErythrocloniumHS14
    `--DumontiaceaeHL09
         |--Cryptosiphonia woodii Agardh 1876S57
         |--Thuretellopsis peggiana Kylin 1925S57
         |--Weeksia fryeana Setchell 1912S57
         |--Gibsmithia Doty 1963HL09
         |    `--G. hawaiiensis Doty 1963HL09
         |--PikeaS57
         |    |--P. californica Harvey 1853S57
         |    `--P. pinnata Setchell in Collins, Holdern & Setchell 1899S57
         |--Farlowia Agardh 1876S57, KC01
         |    |--F. compressa Agardh 1876S57
         |    `--F. mollis (Harvey & Bailey) Farlow & Setchell in Collins, Holden & Setchell 1901 [=Gigartina mollis]S57
         |--DilseaS57
         |    |--D. californica (Agardh) Kuntze 1891 [=Sarcophyllis californica]S57
         |    `--D. carnosaRS99
         |--ConstantineaS57
         |    |--C. rosamarinaH04
         |    |--C. simplex Setchell 1901S57
         |    `--C. subulifera Setchell 1906S57
         `--DumontiaHSA03
              |--D. alaskanaHSA03
              |--D. contortaMS02
              |--D. fastigiata [=Halymenia fastigiata]BS-V28
              `--D. filiformisG64

Agardhiella coulteri (Harvey) Setchell in Collins, Holden & Setchell 1897 [=Hypriea coulteri, Rhabdonia coulteri]S57

Craspedocarpus erosus (Harvey) Schmitz. 1897 [=Callophyllis erosa, Rhodophyllis erosa; incl. R. chathamensis Cotton 1907]L27

Portieria hornemannii (Lyngbye) Silva in Silva et al. 1987 [=Desmia hornemannii Lyngbye 1819, Chondrococcus hornemannii]HL09

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BG16] Boo, G. H., L. Le Gall, K. A. Miller, D. W. Freshwater, T. Wernberg, R. Terada, K. J. Yoon & S. M. Boo. 2016. A novel phylogeny of the Gelidiales (Rhodophyta) based on five genes including the nuclear CesA, with descriptions of Orthogonocladia gen. nov. and Orthogonacladiaceae fam. nov. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 101: 359–372.

[BS-V28] Bory de Saint-Vincent, J. B. 1828. Voyage Autour du Monde, Exécuté par Ordre du Roi, Sur la Corvette de Sa Majesté, La Coquille, pendant les années 1822, 1823, 1824 et 1825. Botanique. Cryptogamie. Arthus Bertrand: Paris.

[GW97] Gómez, I., G. Weykam, H. Klöser & C. Wiencke. 1997. Photosynthetic light requirements, metabolic carbon balance and zonation of sublittoral macroalgae from King George Island (Antarctica). Marine Ecology—Progress Series 148: 281–293.

[G64] Gray, J. E. 1864. Handbook of British Water-weeds or Algae. R. Hardwicke: London.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[HG93] Hommersand, M. H., M. D. Guiry, S. Fredericq & G. L. Leister. 1993. New perspectives in the taxonomy of the Gigartinaceae (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). Hydrobiologia 260–261: 105–120.

[HJ08] Huisman, J. M., D. S. Jones, F. E. Wells & T. Burton. 2008. Introduced marine biota in Western Australian waters. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 1–44.

[HK90] Huisman, J. M., G. A. Kendrick, D. I. Walker & A. Couté. 1990. The marine algae of Shark Bay, Western Australia. In: Berry, P. F., S. D. Bradshaw & B. R. Wilson (eds) Research in Shark Bay: Report of the France-Australe Bicentenary Expedition Committee pp. 89–100. Western Australian Museum.

[HL09] Huisman, J. M., F. Leliaert, H. Veerbruggen & R. A. Townsend. 2009. Marine benthic plants of Western Australia’s shelf-edge atolls. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 50–87.

[HS14] Huisman, J. M., & A. Sampey. 2014. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: marine plants. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 45–67.

[HSA03] Huisman, J. M., A. R. Sherwood & I. A. Abbott. 2003. Morphology, reproduction, and the 18S rRNA gene sequence of Pihiella liagoraciphila gen. et sp. nov. (Rhodophyta), the so-called ‘monosporangial discs’ associated with members of the Liagoraceae (Rhodophyta), and proposal of the Pihiellales ord. nov. Journal of Phycology 39: 978–987.

[K98] Kaehler, S. 1998. The non-coralline epilithic encrusting algae of Hong Kong II: additions and identification. Asian Marine Biology 15: 1–17.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[L27] Laing, R. M. 1927. A reference list of New Zealand marine algae. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 126–185.

[L49] Levring, T. 1949. Six new marine algae from New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (3): 394–397.

[MS02] Müller, K. M., A. R. Sherwood, C. M. Pueschel, R. R. Gutell & R. G. Sheath. 2002. A proposal for a new red algal order, the Thoreales. Journal of Phycology 38: 807–820.

[N10] Norris, J. N. 2010. Marine algae of the northern Gulf of California: Chlorophyta and Phaeophyceae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 94: 1–276.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[RS99] Rossman, A. Y., G. J. Samuels, C. T. Rogerson & R. Lowen. 1999. Genera of Bionectriaceae, Hypocreaceae and Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycetes). Studies in Mycology 42: 1–248.

[SK02] Saunders, G. W., & G. T. Kraft. 2002. Two new Australian species of Predaea (Nemastomataceae, Rhodophyta) with taxonomic recommendations for an expanded Nemastomatales and expanded Halymeniales. Journal of Phycology 38: 1245–1260.

[S57] Scagel, R. F. 1957. An annotated list of the marine algae of British Columbia and northern Washington (including keys to genera). National Museum of Canada Bulletin 150: 1–289.

[W03] Womersley, H. B. S. 2003. The Marine Benthic Flora of southern Australia. Rhodophyta pt IIID. Ceramiales—Delesseriaceae, Sarcomeniaceae, Rhodomelaceae. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 18. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra, and the State Herbarium of South Australia: Adelaide.

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