Glires

 Fossil of the Upper Oligocene Palaeolagus, from here.

Belongs within: Boreoeutheria.
Contains: Rodentia, Lagomorpha.

Glires is the mammalian clade that unites the Rodentia (rodents) with the Lagomorpha (rabbits, hares and pikas). Members of the clade are mostly smaller herbivorous mammals, with enlarged incisors that are open-rooted and ever-growing. Early fossil groups of Glires include the Eurymylidae from the Palaeocene and Eocene of Asia, which resemble rodents in lacking the third upper incisor and second upper premolar but resemble lagomorphs in having cheek teeth with transverse shearing ridges and upper cheek teeth larger than the lower ones (Meng et al. 2003).

Synapomorphies (from Meng et al. 2003): Incisor enamel restricted primarily to labial surface; first upper and lower incisors absent; second deciduous lower incisor ever-growing and extended beneath m3 and beyond; second lower incisor replacement absent; second deciduous upper incisor large and extending into maxilla; second upper incisor replacement absent; incisors transversely compressed with rounded anterior surface; upper canine absent; first upper and lower premolars absent; second lower premolar absent; second upper premolar conical; third upper premolar oval in crown view and multicuspate; no centrocrista on upper molars; lower molar paraconid absent; lower diastema significant; horizontal ramus of mandible deep and short with symphysis tapered anteriorly; angular process of mandible expanded; mandibular condyle anteroposteriorly oriented; infraorbital canal short; nasolacrimal foramen between lacrimal and maxilla; nasolacrimal duct lateral to posterior part of incisor; premaxilla on rostrum substantial but tapering anteriorly; posterior edge of anterior zygomatic root aligning with M2 or M1; orbits shifted anteriorly; postglenoid process absent; glenoid fossa anterodorsal.

<==Glires [Mixodontia]
|--Simplicidentata [Ctenodactyloidea, Paramyidae, Rodentiamorpha, Sciuravida]AM05
| | i. s.: SinomylusR06
| | Irhoudia bohliniL78
| | GobiomyidaeR06
| |--MarfilomysMHL03
| `--+--+--RodentiaMHL03
| | `--CocomyidaeSM93
| | |--Bumbanomys Shevyreva 1989SM93
| | |--Adolomys Shevyreva 1989SM93
| | |--Tsagankushumys Shevyreva 1989SM93
| | |--Tsinglingomys Li 1963SM93
| | |--Tamquammys Shevyreva 1971 [Tamquammyidae]SM93
| | `--Cocomys Dawson et al. 1984OB13, SM93
| | `--C. lingchaensisOB13
| `--Paramys Leidy 1871OB13, SM93
| |--P. adamusMHL03
| |--P. atavusB74
| |--P. bicuspisHUG17
| |--P. buccatus (Cope 1877)G52
| |--P. compressidens [=Ischyromys compressidens]W96
| |--P. copei Loomis 1907G52
| |--P. delicatior (Leidy 1871)B74, C77 [=Plesiarctomys delicatiorC77]
| |--P. excavatusB74
| |--P. majorHUG17
| `--P. taurusWR07
`--Duplicidentata [Lagomorphamorpha, Mimotonida, Mimotonidae]AM05
| i. s.: AnatolmylusMHL03
| Dawsonolagus antiquusOB13
|--+--Gomphos Shevyreva 1975 non Kuntze 1891 (ICBN)AM05, SM93
| | `--G. elkemaAM05
| `--+--Mimolagus rodens Bohlin 1951AM05, MHL03
| |--MimotonaAM05
| | |--M. lii Dashzeveg & Russell 1988SM93
| | `--M. wanaOB13
| `--+--Desmatolagus Matthew & Granger 1923AM05, SM93
| `--NeolagomorphaA99
| |--LagomorphaAM05
| `--Palaeolagus Leidy 1856AM05, A99 [Palaeolagida, Palaeolaginae]
| |--P. burkei Wood 1940S96
| |--P. haydeni Leidy 1856S96
| |--P. hemirhizisD07
| |--P. hypsodusTS96
| |--P. intermediusD07
| |--P. philoiD07
| |--P. primusD07
| `--P. temnodon Douglass 1901S96
`--EurymylidaeMHL03
| i. s.: Zagmys [Zagmyinae]MHL03
| NikolomylusMHL03
| AktashmysMHL03
| Khaychina [Khaychininae]MHL03
| Hypsimylus [Hypsimylinae]MHL03
|--Heomys Li 1977AM05, SM93
`--EurymylinaeMHL03
| i. s.: AsiaparamysMHL03
| KazygurtiaMHL03
| EomylusMHL03
| AmarMHL03
| DecipomysMHL03
|--Eurymylus Matthew & Granger 1925AM05, MHL03 [incl. Baenomys Matthew & Granger 1925MHL03]
| `--*E. laticeps Matthew & Granger 1925 [incl. *Baenomys ambiguus Matthew & Granger 1925]MHL03
`--RhombomylidaeMHL03
|--Matutinia nitidulus [=Rhombomylus nitidulus]MHL03
`--Rhombomylus Zhai 1978AM05, MHL03
`--*R. turpanensis Zhai 1978 [incl. R. laianensis Zhai et al. 1976]MHL03

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AM05] Asher, R. J., J. Meng, J. R. Wible, M. C. McKenna, G. W. Rougier, D. Dashzeveg & M. J. Novacek. 2005. Stem Lagomorpha and the antiquity of Glires. Science 307: 1091–1094.

[A99] Averianov, A. O. 1999. Phylogeny and classification of Leporidae (Mammalia, Lagomorpha). Vestnik Zoologii 33 (1–2): 41–48.

[B74] Bugge, J. 1974. The cephalic arterial system in insectivores, primates, rodents and lagomorphs, with special reference to the systematic classification. Acta Anatomica 87 (Suppl 62): 1–160.

[C77] Cope, E. D. 1877. Report upon the extinct Vertebrata obtained in New Mexico by parties of the expedition of 1874. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (2): i–iv, 1–370.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[G52] Gazin, C. L. 1952. The Lower Eocene Knight Formation of western Wyoming and its mammalian faunas. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 117 (18): 1–82, 11 pls.

[HUG17] Halliday, T. J. D., P. Upchurch & A. Goswami. 2017. Resolving the relationships of Paleocene placental mammals. Biological Reviews 92 (1): 521–550.

[L78] Lavocat, L. 1978. Rodentia and Lagomorpha. In Evolution of African Mammals (V. J. Maglio & H. B. S. Cooke, eds) pp. 69-89. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[MHL03] Meng, J., Y. Hu & C. Li. 2003. The osteology of Rhombomylus (Mammalia, Glires): implications for phylogeny and evolution of Glires. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 275: 1–247.

[OB13] O’Leary, M. A., J. I. Bloch, J. J. Flynn, T. J. Gaudin, A. Giallombardo, N. P. Giannini, S. L. Goldberg, B. P. Kraatz, Z.-X. Luo, J. Meng, X. Ni, M. J. Novacek, F. A. Perini, Z. S. Randall, G. W. Rougier, E. J. Sargis, M. T. Silcox, N. B. Simmons, M. Spaulding, P. M. Velazco, M. Weksler, J. R. Wible & A. L. Cirranello. 2013. The placental mammal ancestor and the post-K–Pg radiation of placentals. Science 339: 662–667.

[R06] Rose, K. D. 2006. The Beginning of the Age of Mammals. John Hopkins University Press: Baltimore.

[S96] Storer, J. E. 1996. Eocene-Oligocene faunas of the Cypress Hills Formation, Saskatchewan. In: Prothero, D. R., & R. J. Emry (eds) The Terrestrial Eocene–Oligocene Transition in North America pp. 240–261. Cambridge University Press.

[SM93] Stucky, R. K., & M. C. McKenna. 1993. Mammalia. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 739–771. Chapman & Hall: London.

[TS96] Tedford, R. H., J. B. Swinehart, C. C. Swisher III, D. R. Prothero, S. A. King & T. E. Tierney. 1996. The Whitneyan-Arikareean transition in the High Plains. In: Prothero, D. R., & R. J. Emry (eds) The Terrestrial Eocene–Oligocene Transition in North America pp. 312–334. Cambridge University Press.

[W96] Walsh, S. L. 1996. S. Middle Eocene mammal faunas of San Diego County, California. In: Prothero, D. R., & R. J. Emry (eds) The Terrestrial Eocene–Oligocene Transition in North America pp. 75–119. Cambridge University Press.

[WR07] Wible, J. R., G. W. Rougier, M. J. Novacek & R. J. Asher. 2007. Cretaceous eutherians and Laurasian origin for placental mammals near the K/T boundary. Nature 447: 1003–1006.

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