Globothalamea

Reophax guttifer, copyright Onno Groß.

Belongs within: Foraminifera.
Contains: Hormosinida, Ammomarginulinida, Nouriida, Saccamminidae, Robertinida, Rotaliida, Nautiloculinida, Spiroplectamminida, Verneuilinida, Textulariida, Trochamminidae.

The Globothalamea is a major group of multi-chambered Foraminifera in which the chambers are primarily globular or crescent-shaped. Basal lineages, corresponding to the order ‘Textulariida’, have an agglutinated test; other subgroups have a test composed of calcite or aragonite (Pawlowski et al. 2013).

Characters (from Pawlowski et al. 2013): Test multi-chambered, typically trochospirally enrolled but may be triserial, biserial or uniserial; chambers globular or crescent-shaped in early stage; wall agglutinated or calcareous. SSU rRNA gene length averaging 3500 nt (3000–4000 nt), GC content of about 40%; conserved motive present in variable region 41f of SSU rDNA.

<==Globothalamea [Pavonitinoidea, Pavonitonacea]PHT13
    |--HormosinanaM13
    |    |  i. s.: Agglutisolena Senowbari-Daryan 1984 [Agglutisolenidae]M13
    |    |         Coprolithina Marie 1941M13, LT64
    |    |           `--*C. subcylindrica Marie 1941LT64
    |    |         Kaeveria Senowbari-Daryan 1984M13, HW93
    |    |         Paleogaudryina Said & Barakat 1958M13, LT64
    |    |           `--*P. magharaensis Said & Barakat 1958 [=Migros magharaensis]LT64
    |    |         TalimuellaM13
    |    |--HormosinidaPHT13
    |    |--AmmomarginulinidaM13
    |    |--NouriidaM13
    |    |--SaccamminidaM13
    |    |    |--SaccamminidaeM13
    |    |    `--Thurammina Brady 1879LT64 [=Arthyrammum Rhumbler 1913LT64, Thyrammina Rhumbler 1904LT64; ThuramminidaeM13]
    |    |         |--*T. papillata Brady 1879 [=*Arthyrammum papillatum, *Thyrammina papillata]LT64
    |    |         `--T. echinataLT64
    |    `--PseudopalmulidaM13
    |         |--Pseudopalmula Cushman & Stainbrook 1943LT64 [PseudopalmulidaeM13]
    |         |    `--*P. palmuloides Cushman & Stainbrook 1943LT64
    |         `--SemitextulariidaeM13
    |              |--Koskinotextularia Eickhoff 1968HW93
    |              |--Semitextularia Miller & Carmer 1933LT64
    |              |    `--*S. thomasi Miller & Carmer 1933LT64
    |              `--Paratextularia Pokorný 1951 [=Cremsia Bykova 1952]LT64
    |                   `--*P. proboscidea (Cushman & Stainbrook 1943) [=Textularia proboscidea, *Cremsia proboscidea]LT64
    `--RotaliataM13
         |--RotalianaM13
         |    |--RobertinidaC40
         |    `--RotaliidaPH03
         `--TextularianaM13
              |  i. s.: NautiloculinidaM13
              |         SpiroplectamminidaM13
              |--VerneuilinidaPHT13
              `--+--TextulariidaPHT13
                 `--+--Eggerelloides scaberPHT13
                    `--TrochamminidaM13
                         |--RemaneicioideaM13
                         |    |--AsterotrochamminidaeM13
                         |    |--Remaneica Rhumbler 1938LT64 [RemaneicidaeM13, Remaneicinae]
                         |    |    |--*R. helgolandica Rhumbler 1938 [=Trochammina (*Remaneica) helgolandica]LT64
                         |    |    `--R. plicataC40
                         |    |--Carterinidae [Carterinacea, Carterinida, Carterinina]M13
                         |    |    |--ZaninettinaeM13
                         |    |    `--Carterina Brady 1884AS12 [CarterininaeM13]
                         |    |         `--*C. spiculotesta (Carter 1877) [=Rotalia spiculotesta]C40
                         |    `--DictyopsellidaeM13
                         |         |--Conorbinella Poroshina 1976HW93
                         |         `--Dictyopsella Munier-Chalmas 1887HW93
                         |              |--*D. kiliani Munier-Chalmas in Schlumberger 1900LT64
                         |              `--D. chalmasiC40
                         `--TrochamminoideaM13
                              |--TrochamminidaePHT13
                              |--VialoviidaeM13
                              |--Rotaliammina Cushman 1924LT64 [RotaliamminidaeM13]
                              |    `--*R. mayori Cushman 1924LT64
                              |--Adercotryma Loeblich & Tappan 1952LT64 [AdercotrymidaeM13]
                              |    `--*A. glomerata (Brady 1878) [=Lituola glomerata]LT64
                              |--Ammosphaeroidina Cushman 1910LT64 [AmmosphaeroidinidaeM13, Ammosphaeroidininae]
                              |    `--*A. sphaeroidiniformis (Brady 1884) [=Haplophragmium sphaeroidiniformis]LT64
                              `--ValvulamminidaeM13
                                   |--Valvulammina Cushman 1933LT64
                                   |    `--*V. globularis (d’Orbigny 1826) [=Valvulina globularis, V. globulosa (l. c.)]LT64
                                   `--Discorinopsis Cole 1941HW93 (see below for synonymy)
                                        |--*D. gunteri Cole 1941 [incl. Valvulina floridana Cole 1941]LT64
                                        `--D. globula (Bourdon & Lys 1955) [=*Arenagula globula]LT64

Discorinopsis Cole 1941HW93 [incl. Arenagula Bourdon & Lys 1955LT64, Arenaglobula (l. c.)LT64]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–493.

[C40] Cushman, J. A. 1940. Foraminifera: Their classification and economic use 3rd ed. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[HW93] Hart, M. B., & C. L. Williams. 1993. Protozoa. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 43–70. Chapman & Hall: London.

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[M13] Mikhalevich, V. I. 2013. New insight into the systematics and evolution of the Foraminifera. Micropaleontology 59 (6): 493–527.

[PH03] Pawlowski, J., M. Holzmann, J. Fahrni & S. L. Richardson. 2003. Small subunit ribosomal DNA suggests that the xenophyophorean Syringammina corbicula is a foraminiferan. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 50: 483–487.

[PHT13] Pawlowski, J., M. Holzmann & J. Tyszka. 2013. New supraordinal classification of Foraminifera: molecules meet morphology. Marine Micropalaeontology 100: 1–10.

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