Small dog-cockle Glycymeris modesta, photographed by Graham Bould.

Belongs within: Limopsoidea.

Glycymeris, the dog-cockles, are a group of bivalves found lying unattached on the substrate in shallow seabeds. They have a subcircular to subquadrate shell with a smooth or costate surface and internally fluted ventral margins.

<==Glycymeris da Costa 1778 [Glycymeridinae]DK10
    |--G. (Glycymeris)KS02
    |    |--*G. (G.) orbicularis (da Costa 1778) [=Arca orbicularis]KS02
    |    `--G. (G.) siliqua [=Mya (G.) siliqua]G20
    |--G. (Glycymerita Finlay & Marwick 1937)KS02
    |    |--G. (*G.) concava Marshall 1917KS02
    |    |--G. (G.) gigantica Kanjilal & Srinivasan 2002KS02
    |    `--G. (G.) selwynensis Woods 1917F27a, S98
    |--G. (Glycymerula Finlay & Marwick 1937)P61
    |    `--G. (*G.) modesta (Angas 1879)P61
    `--G. (Grandaxinea Iredale 1931)P61
         |--G. (*G.) magnificensP61
         `--G. (G.) laticostata (Quoy & Gaimard 1835)P61
Glycymeris incertae sedis:
  G. arabica (Adams 1870)BD86
  G. broadfooti Iredale 1929S-S90
  G. cainozoica (Tenison Woods 1877) [=Cucullaea cainoizoica]DK10
  G. capricornea Hedley 1906H09
  G. cardiiformis (Angas 1879) [=Pectunculus cardiiformis]H09
  G. cortezianaB56
  G. crebreliratus (Sowerby 1889)WBS-S15 [=Pectunculus crebriliratusH09]
  G. dampierensis Matsukuma 1984S-S90
  G. fringilla (Angas 1872) [=Axinaea fringilla]H09
  G. generosa [incl. Mya abrupta, Panopaea faujasii]C64
  G. glycymerisM96
  G. halliF27b
    |--G. h. halliF27b
    `--G. h. mistio Finlay 1927 (see below for synonymy)F27b
  G. hedleyi (Lamy 1912)MG-H11
  G. holosericusGW02
  G. huttoni Marwick 1923 [=Pectunculus globosus Hutton 1873 non Sowerby 1850]F27b
  G. insubricaGW02 [incl. G. violascescensPP64]
  G. intermedia (Broderip 1832) [=Pectunculus intermedius]F27b
  G. maccoyiQ72
  G. martini Finlay 1927 [=Axinaea orbicularis Martin 1887 non Arca orbicularis da Costa 1778]F27b
  G. pectiniformisBRW98
  G. pectunculus (Linnaeus 1758) [=Arca pectunculus]H09
  G. persimilis Iredale 1939S-S90
  G. radians (Lamarck 1819)S-S90
  G. reevei (Mayer 1868)WBS-S15
  G. queenslandica Hedley 1906H09
  G. sordida (Tate 1891) [incl. G. insignis Pilsbry 1906]S-S90
  G. striatularis (Lamarck 1819)MG-H11 (see below for synonymy)
  G. tenuicostatus (Reeve 1843) [=Pectunculus tenuicostatus]H09
  G. vitreus (Lamarck 1819) [=Pectunculus vitreus]H09
  G. waipipiensisW27
  G. yessoensis (Sowerby 1889)XZ10

Glycymeris halli mistio Finlay 1927 [=G. halli var. intermedia Pritchard 1903 non Pectunculus intermedius Broderip 1832]F27b

Glycymeris striatularis (Lamarck 1819)MG-H11 [incl. Pectunculus obliquus Reeve 1843 nec Defrance 1826 nec Lea 1833 nec Munster 1835F27b]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BD86] Barash, A., & Z. Danin. 1986. Further additions to the knowledge of Indo-Pacific Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea (Lessepsian migrants). Spixiana 9 (2): 117–141.

[BRW98] Beesley, P. L., G. J. B. Ross & A. Wells (eds) 1998. Fauna of Australia vol. 5. Mollusca: The Southern Synthesis. Part A. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[B56] Berry, S. S. 1956. Mollusca dredged by the Orca off the Santa Barbara Islands, California, in 1951. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (5): 150–157.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[DK10] Darragh, T. A., & G. W. Kendrick. 2010. Eocene molluscs from the Merlinleigh Sandstone, Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 26 (1): 23–41.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[GW02] Giribet, G., & W. Wheeler. 2002. On bivalve phylogeny: a high-level analysis of the Bivalvia (Mollusca) based on combined morphology and DNA sequence data. Invertebrate Biology 121 (4): 271–324.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[KS02] Kanjilal, S., & M. S. Srinivasan. 2002. New bivalves from the Miocene of Little Andaman Island, Bay of Bengal. Journal of the Geological Society of India 60: 527–536.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[M96] Morton, B. 1996. The evolutionary history of the Bivalvia. In: Taylor, J. D. (ed.) Origin and Evolutionary Radiation of the Mollusca pp. 337–359. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[Q72] Quilty, P. G. 1972. The biostratigraphy of the Tasmanian marine Tertiary. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 106: 25–44.

[S-S90] Slack-Smith, S. M. 1990. The bivalves of Shark Bay, Western Australia. In: Berry, P. F., S. D. Bradshaw & B. R. Wilson (eds) Research in Shark Bay: Report of the France-Australe Bicentenary Expedition Committee pp. 129–157. Western Australian Museum.

[S98] Stilwell, J. D. 1998. Late Cretaceous Mollusca from the Chatham Islands, New Zealand. Alcheringa 22 (1): 29–85.

[W27] Waghorn, R. J. 1927. The geology of the Ruakokopatuna Valley, southern Wairarapa. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 226–234.

[WBS-S15] Willan, R. C., C. Bryce & S. M. Slack-Smith. 2015. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: molluscs. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 287–343.

[XZ10] Xu, F., & J. Zhang. 2010. Study on the bivalve faunal composition of the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea. In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of “Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean”, 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 7–12. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

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