Gnaphosidae

Eilica sp., copyright Irene Richardson.

Belongs within: Gnaphosoidea.
Contains: Haplodrassus, Drassodes, Zelotes, Gnaphosa.

The Gnaphosidae, flat-bellied ground spiders, are a diverse group of mostly ground-running spiders that are characterised by the presence of enlarged spigots on the lateral spinnerets. They produce egg sacs that are usually papery and attached to a firm surface (Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007). Among the major subgroups of the Gnaphosidae, Hemicloea species are very flat, thin spiders with a sclerotised ring on the posterior lateral spinnerets. Members of the genus Herpyllus possess male palps with a basally broadened embolus and elongate median apophysis, and internal female genitalia consisting of two elongate tubular spermathecae with basal lobes. The similar genus Scotophaeus has a hooklike median apophysis on the male palp and terminal bulbs on the spermathecae in the female. Species of Eilica have anteriorly produced chelicerae possessing two or three translucent laminae on the retromargin, and often have a pattern of light and dark areas on the abdomen. Trachyzelotes is a genus found primarily around the Mediterranean characterised by a cluster of stiff setae on the anteromedian face of the chelicerae.

Characters (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Small to medium-sized; eight eyes present, with posterior median eyes flattened; endites obliquely depressed; legs with two tarsal claws; ecribellate; anterior spinnerets parallel, large, cylindrical and usually well separated, without distal ring; their piriform gland spigots greatly enlarged, with flattened base and shaft, and slit-like opening; entelegyne.

<==Gnaphosidae [Drassidae]
    |--Camillina calelR14
    `--+--+--Apodrassodes quilpuensisR14
       |  `--GnaphosaR14
       `--EilicaR14
            |--E. amambayR14
            |--E. modesta Keyserling 1891FM11
            |--E. rufithorax (Simon 1893)FM11
            `--E. trilineataR14
Gnaphosidae incertae sedis:
  Trachyzelotes Lohmander 1944ZO11
    |--T. jaxartensis (Kroneberg 1875)PO08
    `--T. pedestris (Koch 1837)BBM02
  Nauhea Forster 1979PVD10
    `--*N. tapa Forster 1979PVD10
  Hypodrassodes de Dalmas 1919PVD10
    |--*H. maoricus (de Dalmas 1917)PVD10
    |--H. apicus Forster 1979PVD10
    |--H. courti Forster 1979PVD10
    |--H. crassus Forster 1979PVD10
    |--H. dalmasi Forster 1979PVD10
    |--H. insulanus Forster 1979PVD10
    `--H. isopus Forster 1979PVD10
  Scotophaeus Simon 1893PVD10
    |--S. bersebaensis Strand 1915J98
    |--S. blackwalli (Thorell 1871)PVD10 [=Drassus blackwalliV09]
    |--S. cognatus (Westr. 1861)S06
    |--S. lamperti Strand 1906J98
    |--S. pretiosus (Koch 1873)PVD10
    `--S. validus (Lucas 1846)K55
  Notiodrassus Bryant 1935PVD10
    |--*N. distinctus Bryant 1935PVD10
    `--N. fiordensis Forster 1979PVD10
  Rebilus [Rebileae]B96
    `--R. castaneus Simon 1908M90
  Pterotricha Kulczyński 1903MG03
    |--P. conspersa (Pickard-Cambridge 1872)PO08
    `--P. lesserti Dalmas 1921MG03
  Anzacia de Dalmas 1919PVD10
    |--A. gemmea (Dalmas 1919)ZO11
    `--A. pretiosaM83
  Drassyllus Chamberlin 1922ZO11
    |--D. crimeaensis Kovblyuk 2003K03
    |--D. lutetianusRKD02
    |--D. praeficus (Koch 1866) [=Zelotes praeficus]K03
    |--D. pumilus (Koch 1839)K03
    |--D. pusillus (Koch 1833) [=Zelotes pusillus]K03
    `--D. villicus (Thorell 1875)K03
  HaplodrassusD90
  NomisiaK55
    |--N. aussereri (Koch 1872)K55
    `--N. exornata (Koch 1839)K55
  Orodrassus canadensis Platnick & Shadab 1975PS08
  Odontodrassus mundulus (Pickard-Cambridge 1872)PO08
  TalanitesPO08
  Minosia spinosissima (Simon 1878)JD-S07, PO08
  CallilepisW77
    |--C. concolor Simon 1914W77
    |--C. cretica (Roewer 1928) [=Minosia cretica, Crosbyellum creticum; incl. C. wiehlei Bristowe 1935]W77
    `--C. nocturnaK01
  Apopyllus silvestrii (Simon 1905)L-M-HM11, FM11
  ZimiromusL-M-HM11
  Intruda Forster 1979PVD10
    `--*I. signata (Hogg 1900)PVD10
  Zelanda Özdikmen 2009 [=Taieria Forster 1979 (preoc.)]PVD10
    |--*Z. erebus (Koch 1873)PVD10
    |--Z. elongata (Forster 1979)PVD10
    |--Z. kaituna (Forster 1979)PVD10
    |--Z. miranda (Forster 1979)PVD10
    |--Z. obtusa (Forster 1979)PVD10
    `--Z. titirangia (Ovtsharenko, Fedoryak & Zakharov 2006)PVD10
  Megamyrmaekion Reuss 1834ZO11
  Afratheuma Kishida 1932 [Afratheumeae]TYM08
  CesoniaD90
  SergiolusD90
  Setaphis arcusJD-S07
  XerophaeusJD-S07
  Kaitawa Forster 1979PVD10
    `--*K. insulare (Marples 1956)PVD10
  Matua Forster 1979PVD10
    |--*M. valida Forster 1979PVD10
    `--M. festiva Forster 1979PVD10
  Pythonissa Koch 1837S06
    |--P. adspersa Grube 1862S06
    `--P. cinereaK01
  Prosthesima Koch 1872S06
    |--P. barbataK01
    |--P. foveolataK01
    |--P. iaxartensisK01
    |--P. niger Banks 1896S06
    |--P. nigritaP-C06
    |--P. rustica Koch 1872S06
    `--P. subterranea (Koch 1833)S06
  Eomactator mactatus Petrunkevitch 1958S93
  Captrix lineata Koch & Berendt 1854S93
  Echemus Simon 1878ZO11 [EcheminaeJD-S07]
  HerpyllusE95 [Herpylleae, HerpyllinaeJD-S07]
    `--H. blackwalliE95
  Hemicloea Thorell 1870PVD10 [Hemicloeae, HemicloeinaeJD-S07]
    |--H. rogenhoferi Koch 1875PVD10 [incl. H. alacris de Dalmas 1917FF99, H. celerrima de Dalmas 1917FF99]
    `--H. sundevallii Thorell 1870PVD10
  DrassodesZO11
  ZelotesZO11
  IdmoniaP92
  MelanophoraP92
    |--M. flavensS99
    |--M. pacifica Simon 1899S99
    `--M. rusticaS99
  SpheconiaP92
  DrassyllinusP92
Nomina nuda: Prosthesima sibirianaS06
             Prosthesima tristisS06
             Pythonissa pallidaS06

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

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