Gnathophiuridea

Savigny’s brittle star Ophiactis savignyi, copyright Moorea Biocode.

Belongs within: Ophiurida.
Contains: Ophiotrichidae, Ophiactis, Amphiura.

The Ophiactidae are a family of brittle stars in which the disc bears a covering of granules or spinules.

Gnathophiuridea [Gnathophiurida, Gnathophiurina]SW66
    |--AmphilepididaeTS16
    |    |--Amphilepis Ljungman 1866SW66
    |    |    `--*A. norvegica (Ljungman 1865)TS16 [=Amphiura norvegicaSW66]
    |    `--Ophiochytra Lyman 1880SW66
    |         `--*O. epigrus Lyman 1880SW66
    |--Ophiactidae [Ophiactinae]S97
    |    |  i. s.: Ophiopus Ljungman 1866 [incl. Ophiaregma Sars 1872]SW66
    |    |           `--*O. arcticus Ljungman 1866SW66
    |    |         Hemipholis Lyman 1865SW66
    |    |           |--*H. elongata (Say 1825) [=Ophiura elongata]SW66
    |    |           `--H. cordiferaH04
    |    |--Histampica duplicata (Lyman 1875)TS16
    |    `--+--Ophienigma Stöhr & Ségonzac 2005TS16
    |       |    `--O. spinilimbatum Stöhr & Ségonzac 2005TS16
    |       `--+--+--OphiotrichidaeTS16
    |          |  `--Ophiopholis Müller & Troschel 1840TS16, SW66
    |          |       |--O. aculeata (Linnaeus 1767)TS16 (see below for synonymy)
    |          |       `--O. japonicaH04
    |          `--OphiactisTS16
    `--AmphiuridaeS97
         |  i. s.: Monamphiura Fell 1962SW66
         |           `--*M. alba (Mortensen 1924) [=Amphiura alba]SW66
         |         Pandelia Fell 1962SW66
         |           `--*P. hinemoae (Mortensen 1924) [=Amphiura hinemoae]SW66
         |         Acrocnida Gislén 1926SW66
         |           `--*A. brachiata (Montague 1804)SW66 [=Asterias brachiataSW66, Ophiocnida brachiataBK77]
         |         Ailsaria Fell 1962SW66
         |           `--*A. echinulata (Mortensen 1940) [=Amphioplus echinulatus]SW66
         |         Amphiacantha Matsumoto 1917SW66
         |           `--*A. acanthina (Clark 1911) [=Amphioplus acanthinus]SW66
         |         Amphichilus Matsumoto 1917SW66
         |           `--*A. trichoides Matsumoto 1917SW66
         |         Amphichondrius Nielsen 1933SW66
         |           `--*A. granulosus Nielsen 1933SW66
         |         Amphicontus Hill 1940SW66
         |           `--*A. minutus Hill 1940SW66
         |         Amphilycus Mortensen 1933SW66
         |           `--*A. androphorus Mortensen 1933SW66
         |         Amphinephthys Fell 1962SW66
         |           `--*A. crossota (Murakami 1943) [=Amphiura crossota]SW66
         |         Amphiocnida Verrill 1899SW66
         |           `--*A. putnami (Lyman 1871) [=Ophiocnida putnami]SW66
         |         Amphiomya Clark 1939SW66
         |           `--*A. notabilis Clark 1939SW66
         |         Amphioncus Clark 1939SW66
         |           `--*A. platydiscus Clark 1939SW66
         |         Anamphiura Clark 1939SW66
         |           `--*A. valida Clark 1939SW66
         |         Ctenamphiura Verrill 1899SW66
         |           `--*C. maxima (Lyman 1879) [=Amphiura maxima]SW66
         |         Diamphiodia Fell 1962SW66
         |           `--*D. violacea (Lütken 1856) [=Amphiura violacea]SW66
         |         ‘Gymnodia’ Fell 1962 non Robineau-Desvoidy 1863SW66
         |           `--*G. tabogae (Nielsen 1932) [=Amphiodia tabogae]SW66
         |         Monopholis Fell 1962SW66
         |           `--*M. vitax (Koehler 1904) [=Amphiura vitax]SW66
         |         Nannophiura Mortensen 1933SW66
         |           `--*N. lagani Mortensen 1933SW66
         |         Nullopholis Fell 1962SW66
         |           `--*N. nudipora (Koehler 1944) [=Amphipholis nudipora]SW66
         |         Ophiocnida Lyman 1865 [incl. Ophiocnidella Ljungman 1872]SW66
         |           `--*O. hispida (LeConte 1851) [=Ophiolepis hispida]SW66
         |         Ophiomonas Djakonov 1952SW66
         |           `--*O. bathybia Djakonov 1952SW66
         |         Ophionema Lütken 1869SW66
         |           `--*O. intricata Lütken 1869SW66
         |         Ophionephthys Lütken 1869SW66
         |           `--*O. limicola Lütken 1869SW66
         |         Ophiophragmus Lyman 1865 [incl. Amphispina Nielsen 1933]SW66
         |           `--*O. wurdemanii (Lyman 1860) [=Amphiura wurdemanii]SW66
         |         Ophiostigma Lütken 1856 [incl. Amphistigma Clark 1938]SW66
         |           `--*O. tenue Lütken 1856SW66
         |         Paracrocnida Mortensen 1940SW66
         |           `--*P. persica Mortensen 1940SW66
         |         Paramphiura Koehler 1895SW66
         |           `--*P. punctata (Forbes 1841) [=Ophiocoma punctata]SW66
         |         Silax Fell 1962SW66
         |           `--*S. verrilli (Lyman 1879) [=Aphiura verrilli]SW66
         |         Unioplus Fell 1962SW66
         |           `--*U. falcatus (Mortensen 1933) [=Amphioplus falcatus]SW66
         |         Icalia Fell 1962SW66
         |           |--*I. denticulata (Koehler 1896) [=Amphiura denticulata]SW66
         |           `--I. filiformisF67
         |         Amphiodia Verrill 1899SW66
         |           |--*A. pulchella (Lyman 1869) [=Amphiura pulchella]SW66
         |           `--A. urticaHD03
         |         Nullamphiura Fell 1962SW66
         |           |--*N. psilopra (Clark 1911) [=Amphiura psilopora]SW66
         |           `--N. felli Skwarko 1963SG93
         |         Ophiodaphne Koehler 1931MG-H11, SW66
         |           |--*O. materna Koehler 1931SW66
         |           `--O. formatus (Koehler 1905)MG-H11
         |         Ophiocentrus Ljungman 1867SW66
         |           |--*O. aculeatus Ljungman 1867SW66
         |           |--O. aspera (Koehler 1905)MG-H11
         |           |--O. dilatata (Koehler 1905)SM15
         |           |--O. inaequalis (Clark 1915)MG-H11
         |           `--O. verticillatus (Döderlein 1896)SM15
         |         Amphipholis Ljungman 1866SW66
         |           |--*A. gracillima (Stimpson 1852) [=Ophiolepis gracillima; incl. *A. januarii Ljungman 1866]SW66
         |           |--A. germinataE97
         |           |--A. kochiiGAS03
         |           |--A. squamata (Delle-Chiaje 1828)MG-H11 [=Amphiura squamataBK77; incl. Ophiocoma neglectaBK77]
         |           `--A. thorelliBK77
         |         DougaloplusSM15
         |--Amphilimna Verrill 1899TS16, SW66
         |    |--*A. olivacea (Lyman 1869) [=Ophiocnida olivacea]SW66
         |    |--A. granulosa Liao 1989MG-H11
         |    `--A. transacta (Koehler 1930)MG-H11
         `--+--Ophiopsila Forbes 1843TS16, SW66 [Ophiopsilinae]
            |    |--*O. aranea Forbes 1843SW66
            |    |--O. annulosaPP64
            |    `--O. guineensis Koehler 1914TS16
            `--+--AmphiuraTS16
               `--Amphioplus Verrill 1899TS16, SW66
                    |--*A. tumidus (Lyman 1899) [=Amphiura tumida]SW66
                    |--A. congensis (Studer 1882)TS16
                    |--A. depressa (Ljungman 1867)MG-H11
                    |--A. hastatus (Ljungman 1867)SM15
                    |--A. laevisPP64
                    |--A. lucidus Koehler 1922MG-H11
                    `--A. ochroleuca (Brock 1888)MG-H11

Ophiopholis aculeata (Linnaeus 1767)TS16 [=Asterias aculeatusSW66; incl. Ophiolepis scolopendrica Müller & Troschel 1840SW66, *Ophiopholis scolopendricaSW66]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1–159.

[E97] Emig, C. C. 1997. Ecology of inarticulated brachiopods. In: Kaesler, R. L. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt H. Brachiopoda, Revised vol. 1. Introduction pp. 473–495. The Geological Society of America: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[F67] Fell, H. B. 1967. Echinoderm ontogeny. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt S. Echinodermata 1. General characters. Homalozoa—Crinozoa (except Crinoidea) vol. 1 pp. S60–S85. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[GAS03] Gulbin, V. V., I. S. Arzamastsev & V. M. Shulkin. 2003. Ecological monitoring of the water area of Port Vostochnyi (Wrangel Bay) in the Sea of Japan (1995–2002). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29 (5): 284–295.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[HD03] Ho, J.-S., M. Dojiri, G. Hendler & G. B. Deets. 2003. A new species of Copepoda (Thaumatopsyllidae) symbiotic with a brittle star from California, U.S.A., and designation of a new order Thaumatopsylloida. Journal of Crustacean Biology 23 (3): 582–594.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[SM15] Sampey, A., & L. M. Marsh. 2015. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: echinoderms. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 207–246.

[SG93] Simms, M. J., A. S. Gale, P. Gilliland, E. P. F. Rose & G. D. Sevastopulo. 1993. Echinodermata. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 491–528. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S97] Smith, A. B. 1997. Echinoderm larvae and phylogeny. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 28: 219–241.

[SW66] Spencer, W. K., & C. W. Wright. 1966. Asterozoans. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 1 pp. U4–U107. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[TS16] Thuy, B., & S. Stöhr. 2016. A new morphological phylogeny of the Ophiuroidea (Echinodermata) accords with molecular evidence and renders microfossils accessible for cladistics. PLoS One 11 (5): e0156140.

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