Blackmouth bass Synagrops bellus, copyright NOAA.

Belongs within: Acanthomorphata.
Contains: Eleotridae, Butidae, Gobionellidae, Gobiidae, Amia, Apogoninae.

The Gobiomorpharia are a diverse clade of fishes united by the presence of sensory papillae rows on the head and body, and by the production of adhesive eggs (Thacker 2009). In the nurseryfish Kurtus gulliveri, these eggs are attached in a cluster to a hook protruding from the supraoccipital of males. The cardinalfishes of the Apogonidae are mostly small, often colourful fishes with large mouths found in warmer waters.

    |--Gobiiformes [Gobioidea, Gobioidei]B-RB13
    |    |  i. s.: ChasmichthysB96
    |    |         Chaparrudo flavescensCS77
    |    |         Pirskenius [Pirskeniidae]G88
    |    |           `--P. diatomaceus Obrhelova 1961P93
    |    |         YongeichthysMWW89
    |    |           |--Y. caninus (Cuvier & Valenciennes 1837)GM90
    |    |           |--Y. criniger (Cuvier & Valenciennes 1837)GM90
    |    |           `--Y. tomasiMWW89
    |    |--+--EleotridaeB-RB13
    |    |  `--+--ButidaeT09
    |    |     `--+--GobionellidaeT09
    |    |        `--GobiidaeB-RB13
    |    `--+--RhyacichthyidaeT09
    |       |    |--ProtogobiusT11
    |       |    |--TerateleotrisT11
    |       |    `--Rhyacichthys Boulenger 1901 (see below for synonymy)H27
    |       |         `--R. aspro (Kuhl & van Hasselt in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1836)H27 (see below for synonymy)
    |       `--Odontobutidae [Odontobutoidei]B-RB13
    |            |  i. s.: MicropercopsT11
    |            |--Milyeringa Whitley 1945T09, TP86
    |            |    |--M. justitia Larson, Humphreys & Stevens 2013HA13
    |            |    `--M. veritas Whitley 1945TP86
    |            `--+--Percottus glenni Dybowski 1877T09, SE08
    |               `--Odontobutis Bleeker 1874T09, H27
    |                    |--O. obscura (Schlegel 1847) [=Eleotris obscura, O. obscurus]H27
    |                    `--O. potamophilaT09
         |--KurtusT09 [KurtidaeB-RB13, Kurtoidei]
         |    |--K. gulliveri [=Cyrtus gulliveri]RD-O86
         |    `--K. indicusND13
         `--Apogonidae [Apogonichthyidae, Apogonoidei, Chilodipteridae]B-RB13
              |  i. s.: PhaeoptyxND13
              |           |--P. conkliniM83
              |           `--P. pigmentariaND13
              |         Zoramia graeffii (Günther 1873) [=Apogon graeffii; incl. Amia nematacantha Fowler 1931]M58
              |         Yarica hyalosoma (Bleeker 1852) (see below for synonymy)M58
              |         Aspiscis bandanensis (Bleeker 1854) [=Apogon bandanensis]M58
              |         GronovichthysG75
              |           |--G. atripes [incl. Amia nigripes]G75
              |           `--G. aureusG75
              |         GlossamiaAC90
              |           |--G. aprion (Richardson 1842) [=Apogon aprion]M58
              |           |    |--G. a. aprionG75
              |           |    `--G. a. gilliG75
              |           |--G. gjellerupi (Weber & de Beaufort 1929) [=Apogon gjellerupi; incl. A. abo Herre 1936]AC90
              |           `--G. wichmanniAC90
              |         KurtamiaT09
              |         Cercamia eremia (Allen 1987)MM09
              |         Astrapogon stellatusND13
              |         AmiaJR10
              |         MionorusJR10
              |           |--M. glagaJR10
              |           `--M. mydrus Jordan & Seale 1905JR10
              |         Apogonidarum weinbergeri Sieber & Weinfurter 1967P93
              |         Apogonops Ogilby 1896O96
              |           `--*A. anomalus Ogilby 1896O96
              |         VincentiaN91
              |           |--V. conspersaN91
              |           `--V. punctataN91
              |--Siphamia Weber 1909 [Siphamiinae]S61
              |    |--*S. tubifer Weber 1909S61
              |    |--S. argyrogaster (Weber 1856) [=Apogon argyrogaster]M58
              |    |--S. cephalotes (Castelnau 1875)H90
              |    |--S. cuneiceps (Whitley 1941)BR90
              |    `--S. mossambica Smith 1955S61
              |    |--Bentuviaichthys Smith 1961S61
              |    |    `--*B. nigrimentum Smith 1961S61
              |    `--Synagrops Gunther 1887S61 [incl. ParascombropsR13]
              |         |--*S. japonicus (Steindachner & Doederlein 1884) (see below for synonymy)S61
              |         |--S. bellusSC07
              |         |--S. microlepisS61
              |         `--S. philippinensis (Gunther 1880) [=Acropoma philippinensis; incl. S. malayanus Weber 1913]S61
                   |--Pseudamia Bleeker 1865S61
                   |    |--*P. polystigma (Bleeker 1859) [=Cheilodipterus polystigma]S61
                   |    `--P. gelatinosa Smith 1955S61
                   |--Pseudamiops Smjith 1954 [incl. Lachneria Smith 1954]S61
                   |    |--*P. pellucidus Smith 1954S61
                   |    `--P. gracilicauda (Lachner 1953) [=Gymnapogon gracilicauda, *Lachneria gracilicauda]S61
                   `--Gymnapogon Regan 1905S61
                        |--*G. japonicus Regan 1905S61
                        `--G. africanus Smith 1954S61

Rhyacichthys Boulenger 1901 [incl. Platyptera Kuhl & Van Hasselt in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1836 non Meigen 1803]H27

Rhyacichthys aspro (Kuhl & van Hasselt in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1836)H27 [=Platyptera asproH27; incl. Rhiacichthys novaeguineae Boulenger 1903M58, P. sinensis Bleeker 1873H27]

*Synagrops japonicus (Steindachner & Doederlein 1884) [=Melanostoma japonicum; incl. S. natalensis Gilchrist 1922]S61

Yarica hyalosoma (Bleeker 1852) [=Apogon hyalosoma; incl. A. armatus Thiollière 1857, A. thermalis Duncker & Mohr 1931]M58

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[B-RB13] Betancur-R., R., R. E. Broughton, E. O. Wiley, K. Carpenter, A. López, C. Li, N. I. Holcroft, D. Arcila, M. Sanciangco, J. C. Cureton, II, F. Zhang, T. Buser, M. A. Campbell, J. A. Ballesteros, A. Roa-Varon, S. Willis, W. C. Borden, T. Rowley, P. C. Reneau, D. J. Hough, G. Lu, T. Grande, G. Arratia & G. Ortí. 2013. The tree of life and a new classification of bony fishes. PLoS Currents Tree of Life April 18 2013. doi: 10.1371/currents.tol.53ba26640df0ccaee75bb165c8c26288.

[BR90] Black, R., A. I. Robertson, C. H. Peterson & N. M. Peterson. 1990. Fishes and benthos of near-shore seagrass and sandflat habitats at Monkey Mia Shark Bay, Western Australia. In: Berry, P. F., S. D. Bradshaw & B. R. Wilson (eds) Research in Shark Bay: Report of the France-Australe Bicentenary Expedition Committee pp. 245–261. Western Australian Museum.

[B96] Bond, C. E. 1996. Biology of Fishes 2nd ed. Saunders College Publishing: Fort Worth.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[GM90] Gill, H. S., & P. J. Miller. 1990. A new genus and species of goby from the Swan-Avon Estuary, Western Australia, with a redescription of the genus Favonigobius Whitley, 1930. Records of the Western Australian Museum 14 (4): 503–525.

[G75] Grant, E. M. 1975. Guide to Fishes. The Co-ordinator-General’s Department: Brisbane (Australia).

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[H27] Herre, A. W. 1927. Gobies of the Philippines and the China Sea. Bureau of Printing: Manila.

[HA13] Humphreys, G., J. Alexander, M. S. Harvey & W. F. Humphreys. 2013. The subterranean fauna of Barrow Island, north-western Australia: 10 years on. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 145–158.

[H90] Hutchins, J. B. 1990. Fish survey of South Passage, Shark Bay, Western Australia. In: Berry, P. F., S. D. Bradshaw & B. R. Wilson (eds) Research in Shark Bay: Report of the France-Australe Bicentenary Expedition Committee pp. 263–278. Western Australian Museum.

[JR10] Jordan, D. S., & R. E. Richardson. 1910. Check-list of the species of fishes known from the Philippine archipelago. Bureau of Printing: Manila.

[MWW89] Miller, P. J., J. Wright & P. Wongrat. 1989. An Indo-Pacific goby (Teleostei: Gobioidei) from West Africa, with systematic notes on Butis and related eleotridine genera. Journal of Natural History 23: 311–324.

[MM09] Moore, G., & S. Morrison. 2009. Fishes of three North West Shelf atolls of Western Australia: Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 221–255.

[M83] Morin, J. G. 1983. Coastal bioluminescence: patterns and functions. Bulletin of Marine Science 33 (4): 787–817.

[M58] Munro, I. S. R. 1958. The fishes of the New Guinea region: A check-list of the fishes of New Guinea incorporating records of species collected by the Fisheries Survey Vessel “Fairwind” during the years 1948 to 1950. Papua and New Guinea Agricultural Journal 10 (4): 97–369 (reprinted 1958. Territory of Papua and New Guinea Fisheries Bulletin no. 1).

[ND13] Near, T. J., A. Dornburg, R. I. Eytan, B. P. Keck, W. L. Smith, K. L. Kuhn, J. A. Moore, S. A. Price, F. T. Burbrink, M. Friedman & P. C. Wainwright. 2013. Phylogeny and tempo of diversification in the superradiation of spiny-rayed fishes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 110 (31): 12738–12743.

[N91] Neira, F. J. 1991. Larval development of the oral brooding cardinalfish Apogon rueppellii (Teleostei: Apogonidae) in Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 15 (3): 517–528.

[O96] Ogilby, J. D. 1896. On a new genus and species of fishes from Maroubra Bay. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 21 (1): 23–25.

[P93] Patterson, C. 1993. Osteichthyes: Teleostei. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 621–656. Chapman & Hall: London.

[RD-O86] Ramsay, E. P., & J. Douglas-Ogilby. 1886. A contribution to the knowledge of the fish-fauna of New Guinea. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 8–20.

[R13] Regan, C. T. 1913. The classification of the percoid fishes. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 8, 12: 111–145.

[SE08] Sevcsik, A., & T. Erös. 2008. A revised catalogue of freshwater fishes of Hungary and the neighbouring countries in the Hungarian Natural History Museum (Pisces). Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 100: 331–383.

[S61] Smith, J. L. B. 1961. Fishes of the family Apogonidae of the western Indian Ocean and the Red Sea. Ichthyological Bulletin 22: 373–417.

[SC07] Smith, W. L., & M. T. Craig. 2007. Casting the percomorph net widely: the importance of broad taxonomic sampling in the search for the placement of serranid and percid fishes. Copeia 2007 (1): 35–55.

[T09] Thacker, C. E. 2009. Phylogeny of Gobioidei and placement within Acanthomorpha, with a new classification and investigation of diversification and character evolution. Copeia 2009 (1): 93–104.

[T11] Thacker, C. 2011. Systematics of Butidae and Eleotridae. In: Patzner, R. A., J. L. Van Tassell, M. Kovačić & B. G. Kapoor (eds) The Biology of Gobies pp. 79–85. CRC Press.

[TP86] Thinès, G., & G. Proudlove. 1986. Pisces. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 709–733. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

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