Gonyleptoidea

Stygnopsis robusta, from here.

Belongs within: Opiliones.
Contains: Agoristenidae, Stygnidae, Laminata, Stygnopsinae.

The Stygnopsidae are a group of harvestmen found in Mexico and Central America characterised by male genitalia with an internal capsule forming a follis on the ventral side in dorsal view of the pars distalis, with a few distal espiniform projections and with several setae on the pars distalis (Cruz-López & Francke 2013).

<==GonyleptoideaSG14
    |--+--AgoristenidaeA19
    |  `--+--+--GerdesiidaeA19
    |     |  |    |--Gerdesius Roewer 1952K03
    |     |  |    |    |--*G. peruvianus Roewer 1952K03
    |     |  |    |    `--G. mapinguari Bragagnolo, Hara & Pinto-da-Rocha 2015A19
    |     |  |    `--Gonycranaus plutoDL23
    |     |  `--+--StygnidaeA19
    |     |     `--LaminataA19
    |     `--CryptogeobiidaeA19
    |          |  i. s.: Tibangara Mello-Leitão 1940KP-G15 (see below for synonymy)
    |          |           |--*T. nephelina Mello-Leitão 1940K03
    |          |           |--‘Paramitraceras’ fuscomaculatus Soares & Soares 1947 (see below for synonymy)K03
    |          |           |--T. keyserlingii (Sørensen in Henriksen 1932)KM20 (see below for synonymy)
    |          |           `--T. soerenseni (Soares & Soares 1954) [=Microminua soerenseni]KP-G15
    |          |         Pseudopachylus Roewer 1912DL23, K03 (see below for synonymy)
    |          |           |--*P. longipes Roewer 1912 (see below for synonymy)K03
    |          |           |--P. alticola (Soares 1945) [=Olynthus alticola]K06
    |          |           |--P. cocaiensis (Soares 1972)K06 [=Paramitraceras cocaiensisK03]
    |          |           |--P. eximius (Mello-Leitão 1936)K06 (see below for synonymy)
    |          |           |--P. martensi Kury 2006K03
    |          |           `--P. nigripes (Mello-Leitão 1932)K06 (see below for synonymy)
    |          |--Spinopilar Mello-Leitão 1940A19, KP-G08 (see below for synonymy)
    |          |    |--*S. armatus Mello-Leitão 1940KP-G08
    |          |    |--S. anomalis (Sørensen in Henriksen 1932)KM20 (see below for synonymy)
    |          |    |--S. apiacaensis Kury 1992KP-G08
    |          |    |--S. friburguensis (Soares 1946)KP-G08 [=Saladonus friburguensisK03]
    |          |    `--S. moria Kury & Pérez-González 2008KP-G08
    |          `--+--Cryptogeobius Mello-Leitão 1935A19, K02 (see below for synonymy)
    |             |    |--*C. crassipes Mello-Leitão 1935 [incl. *Phalangodellopsis crassitibiae Soares & Soares 1954]K03
    |             |    `--C. clavitibialis (Roewer 1949) [=*Pirahya clavitibialis]K03
    |             `--Zalanodius Mello-Leitão 1936A19, K03
    |                  |--*Z. bicornutus 1936K03
    |                  |--Z. convexus (Mello-Leitão 1940)A19
    |                  `--Z. hirsutus (Soares & Soares 1970) [=Phalangodella hirsuta]K03
    `--StygnopsidaeSG11
         |  i. s.: Mexotroglinus Šilhavý 1977K03
         |           `--*M. sbordonii Šilhavý 1977K03
         |         Tampiconus Roewer 1949K03
         |           `--*T. philippii Roewer 1949K03
         |         Sbordonia Šilhavý 1977K03
         |           |--*S. armigera Šilhavý 1977K03
         |           `--S. parvula (Goodnight & Goodnight 1953) [=Paramitraceras parvulus]K03
         |         Paramitraceras Pickard-Cambridge 1905 (see below for synonymy)K03
         |           |--*P. granulatum Pickard-Cambridge 1905K03, KA-Z11, K03 (see below for synonymy)
         |           |--P. femorale Goodnight & Goodnight 1953KA-Z11, K03 [=P. femoralisK03]
         |           `--P. hispidulum Pickard-Cambridge 1905KA-Z11, K03 [=*Panzosus hispidulusK03, Par. hispidulusK03]
         |         Chinquipellobunus Goodnight & Goodnight 1944C04
         |           |--*C. osorioi Goodnight & Goodnight 1944 [=Hoplobunus osorioi]C04
         |           |--C. coahuilaensis Cokendolpher 2004C04
         |           |--C. madlae (Goodnight & Goodnight 1967) [=Hoplobunus madlae]C04
         |           |--C. mexicanus (Goodnight & Goodnight 1971) [=Pellobunus mexicanus]C04
         |           `--C. russelli (Goodnight & Goodnight 1967) [=Hoplobunus russelli]C04
         |         Philora Goodnight & Goodnight 1954C-LF13
         |           |--*P. tuxtlae Goodnight & Goodnight 1954C-LF13
         |           `--P. quetzalzin Cruz-López & Francke 2013C-LF13
         |         Chapulobunus Goodnight & Goodnight 1946C-LF16
         |           |--*C. unispinosus Goodnight & Goodnight 1946C-LF16 [=Karos unispinosusK03]
         |           |--C. asper Cruz-López & Francke 2016C-LF16
         |           |--C. poblanoC-LF16
         |           |--C. psilocybe Cruz-López & Francke 2016C-LF16
         |           `--C. regiomontano Cruz-López & Francke 2016C-LF16
         |         Montabunus Goodnight & Goodnight 1945C-LF16
         |           `--*M. foliorum Goodnight & Goodnight 1945 [=Karos foliorum]K03
         |--StygnopsinaeK18
         `--Karos Goodnight & Goodnight 1944SG11, K03 (see below for synonymy)
              |--*K. barbarikos Goodnight & Goodnight 1944K03
              |--K. brignolii Šilhavý 1974K03
              |--K. depressus Goodnight & Goodnight 1971K03
              |--K. dybasi (Goodnight & Goodnight 1947) [=*Potosa dybasi]K03
              |--K. gratiosus Goodnight & Goodnight 1971K03
              |--K. parvus Goodnight & Goodnight 1971K03
              |--K. projectus Goodnight & Goodnight 1971K03
              |--K. rugosus Goodnight & Goodnight 1971K03
              |--K. tersus Cruz-López & Francke 2015 [=K. tersum]KM20
              `--K. tuberculatus (Goodnight & Goodnight 1944) [=*Monterella tuberculata]K03

Cryptogeobius Mello-Leitão 1935A19, K02 [incl. Phalangodellopsis Soares & Soares 1954K03, Pirahya Roewer 1949K03]

Karos Goodnight & Goodnight 1944SG11, K03 [incl. Monterella Goodnight & Goodnight 1944K03, Potosa Goodnight & Goodnight 1947K03; KarosinaeK18]

Paramitraceras Pickard-Cambridge 1905 [=Paramitroceras (l. c.); incl. Panzosus Roewer 1949, Solola Roewer 1949]K03

‘Paramitraceras’ fuscomaculatus Soares & Soares 1947 [=Tachusina fuscomaculata, Timoleon fuscomaculatus]K03

*Paramitraceras granulatum Pickard-Cambridge 1905K03, KA-Z11, K03 [=P. granulatusK03; incl. P. chichivaca Goodnight & Goodnight 1947K03, *Solola robusta Roewer 1949K03]

Pseudopachylus Roewer 1912 [=Pseudophchylus (l. c.); incl. Caporiacoius Mello-Leitão 1936, Monticola Soares 1944 nec Boie 1822 nec Nalivkin 1930, Monticolina Soares 1944]K03

Pseudopachylus eximius (Mello-Leitão 1936)K06 [=*Caporiacoius eximiusK03; incl. C. fallax Soares 1944K03, Pseudopachylus fallaxK03]

*Pseudopachylus longipes Roewer 1912 [incl. *Monticola acutinasua Soares 1944, *Monticolina acutinasua, Pseudopachylus acutinasua]K03

Pseudopachylus nigripes (Mello-Leitão 1932)K06 [=Tricommatus nigripesK03; incl. P. lissonotus Mello-Leitão 1938K03]

Spinopilar Mello-Leitão 1940A19, KP-G08 [incl. Olynthus Sørensen 1932 nec Hübner 1819 nec Haeckel 1869K03, Soerensenibunus Strand 1942K03, Soerensenolynthus Soares & Soares 1947K03]

Spinopilar anomalis (Sørensen in Henriksen 1932)KM20 [=*Olynthus anomalisK03, O. anomalusK03, *Soerensenibunus anomalisK03, *Soerensenolynthus anomalisK03]

Tibangara Mello-Leitão 1940KP-G15 [incl. Tachus Sørensen in Henriksen 1932 non Jurine 1807KM20, Tachusina Strand 1942K03, Tuchusina (l. c.)KA-Z11]

Tibangara keyserlingii (Sørensen in Henriksen 1932)KM20 [=*Tachus keyserlingiiKM20, *Tachusina keyserlingiiK03]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A19] Acosta, L. E. 2019. A relictual troglomorphic harvestman discovered in a volcanic cave of western Argentina: Otilioleptes marcelae, new genus, new species, and Otilioleptidae, new family (Arachnida, Opiliones, Gonyleptoidea). PLoS One 14 (10): e0223828.

[C04] Cokendolpher, J. C. 2004. Revalidation of the harvestman genus Chinquipellobunus (Opiliones: Stygnopsidae). Texas Memorial Museum, Speleological Monographs 6: 143–152.

[C-LF13] Cruz-López, J. A., & O. F. Francke. 2013. On the enigmatic genus Philora: familial assignment and taxonomic revision (Opiliones: Laniatores: Stygnopsidae). Journal of Arachnology 41: 291–305.

[C-LF16] Cruz-López, J. A., & O. F. Francke. 2016. Three new species of the Mexican harvestman genus Chapulobunus (Opiliones: Stygnopsidae). Journal of Arachnology 44: 65–75.

[DL23] Derkarabetian, S., A. Lord, K. Angier, E. Frigyik & G. Giribet. 2023. An Opiliones-specific ultraconserved element probe set with a near-complete family-level phylogeny. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 187: 107887.

[K02] Kury, A. B. 2002. A new genus of Tricommatinae from eastern Brazil (Opiliones Laniatores Gonyleptidae). Tropical Zoology 15: 209–218.

[K03] Kury, A. B. 2003. Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, volumen especial monográfico 1: 1–337.

[K06] Kury, A. B. 2006. A new Tricommatinae from the montane savanna of São Paulo (Opiliones: Laniatores: Gonyleptidae). Zootaxa 1325: 211–217.

[K18] Kury, A. B. 2018. Familial nomina in harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones). Bionomina 13: 1–27.

[KA-Z11] Kury, A. B., & M. A. Alonso-Zarazaga. 2011. Addenda and corrigenda to the “Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones)”. Zootaxa 3034: 47–68.

[KM20] Kury, A. B., A. C. Mendes, L. Cardoso, M. S. Kury & A. A. Granado. 2020. WCO-Lite: Online world catalogue of harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones). Version 1.0—Checklist of all valid nomina in Opiliones with authors and dates of publication up to 2018. Published by the author: Rio de Janeiro.

[KP-G08] Kury, A. B., & A. Pérez-González. 2008. The first cave-dwelling Spinopilar Mello-Leitão 1940 (Opiliones Gonyleptidae Tricommatinae), described from a Brazilian cave. Tropical Zoology 21: 259–267.

[KP-G15] Kury, A. B., & A. Pérez-González. 2015. A companion to part 2 of the world checklist of Opiliones species (Arachnida): Laniatores—Samooidea, Zalmoxoidea and Grassatores incertae sedis. Biodiversity Data Journal 3: e6663.

[SG11] Sharma, P. P., & G. Giribet. 2011. The evolutionary and biogeographic history of the armoured harvestmen—Laniatores phylogeny based on ten molecular markers, with the description of two new families of Opiliones (Arachnida). Invertebrate Systematics 25: 106–142.

[SG14] Sharma, P. P., & G. Giribet. 2014. A revised dated phylogeny of the arachnid order Opiliones. Frontiers in Genetics 5 (255): 1–13.

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