Grylloidea

 Female Myrmecophila acervorum, copyright Gunter Tschuch.

Belongs within: Apohaglida.
Contains: Gryllinae, Nemobiinae, Eneopterinae, Oecanthinae, Gryllotalpinae, Mogoplistinae, Anaxipha, Trigonidium, Laupala.

The Grylloidea include the crickets, a mostly dorsoventrally flattened, terrestrial group of orthopterans that are usually omnivorous. Their fore wings have a fan-like pleating intercalary triangle, and veins RA, RS and 1MA1 are fused completely or at least in part (Gorochov & Rasnitsyn 2002). Authors have differed as to whether all living grylloids should be included in a single family Gryllidae or whether distinctive groups such as the Gryllotalpinae and Myrmecophilinae should be placed in their own families. The Baissogryllidae and Protogryllidae are two fossil families related to modern crickets known from the Late Jurassic (Gorochov & Rasnitsyn 2002).

Among modern taxa, the Myrmecophilinae, ant crickets, are a group of very small, humpbacked crickets specialised for living in ant nests. The Phalangopsinae, spider crickets, are long-legged, soft-bodied crickets that are often gregarious and are typically found in secluded habitats (Rentz 1996).The Pteroplistinae are found in the Asia-west Pacific region where they are a significant part of the forest cricket fauna (Otte 1994). The Pentacentrinae are small crickets lacking a stridulatory file on the wings and bearing only an anterior auditory tympanum on the fore tibia (Rentz 1996).

The Trigonidiinae, sword-tailed crickets, are relatively small, slender crickets found primarily in damp habitats whose vernacular name comes from the sword-shaped ovipositor of females, used for inserting eggs into plant tissue. A significant radiation of trigonidiines has been described from the islands of Hawaii, including species assigned to the genera Trigonidium, Laupala and Prolaupala (Otte 1994).

<==Grylloidea
    |--Baissogryllus [Baissogryllidae]GR02
    |    |--B. sharoviRJ93
    |    `--B. sibiricusGR02
    |--ProtogryllidaeGR02
    |    |--Angarogryllus angaricusGR02
    |    `--Protogryllus stormbergensisRJ93
    `--Gryllidae [Eneopteridae, Oecanthidae, Trigonidiidae]B04
         |  i. s.: ScobiaFD01
         |         CoiblemmusFD01
         |         ConoblemmusFD01
         |         HomaloblemmusFD01
         |         ScapsipedusRH15
         |           |--S. limbatusRH15
         |           |    |--S. l. limbatusRH15
         |           |    `--S. l. africanusRH15
         |           `--S. saussureiFD01
         |         VelarifictorusFD01
         |           |--V. aspersusFD01
         |           |--V. horridusFD01
         |           `--V. sulcifronsFD01
         |         Petaloptila Pantel 1890B04
         |           |  i. s.: P. andreiniB04
         |           `--P. (Zapetaloptila Gorochov & Llorente 2001)B04
         |                |--P. (Z.) baenai Barranco 2004B04
         |                |--P. (Z.) barrancoi Gorochov & Llorente 2001B04
         |                |--P. (Z.) bolivari (Cazurro 1888)B04
         |                |--P. (Z.) carabajali Barranco 2004B04
         |                |--P. (Z.) llorenteae Barranco 2004B04
         |                |--P. (Z.) mogon Barranco 2004B04
         |                `--P. (Z.) venosa Gorochov & Llorente 2001B04
         |         Liogryllus campestrisB01
         |         Phylloscyrtus canotusR15
         |         Menonia George 1936G38
         |           `--*M. cochinensis George 1936G38
         |         Gryllospeculum mongolicum Gorokhov 1985RJ93
         |         Brachytrypes megacephalusRD77
         |         Gryllulus domesticusP92, K91
         |         HeterotrypusP92
         |         StenogryllodesP92
         |         TrichogryllusP92
         |         GryllidarumP92
         |         CryptoptilumPP72
         |--GryllinaeO94
         |--NemobiinaeO94
         |--EneopterinaeO94
         |--OecanthinaeO94
         |--CachoplistinaeR91
         |--GryllotalpinaeO94
         |--MogoplistinaeO94
         |--Pentacentrus [Pentacentrinae]O94
         |    `--P. velutinusR96
         |--PteroplistinaeO94
         |    |--PteroplistiniO94
         |    `--LandreviniO94
         |         |--MjobergellaR91
         |         `--CopholandrevusR91
         |--Phalangopsinae [Phalangopsidae]O94
         |    |--Strinatia brevipenisM02
         |    |--TathraR96
         |    |--Nesitathra philipensisR96
         |    |--EndotariaR96
         |    `--EndacustaR96
         |         |--E. majorR96
         |         `--E. pindanaR96
         |--Myrmecophilinae [Myrmecophilidae]O94
         |    |--MyrmecophilellusR96
         |    `--MyrmecophilaO94
         |         |--M. acervorumK09
         |         |--M. americana Saussure 1877O94
         |         |--M. keyi [incl. M. tindalei]R96
         |         |--M. manniTW05
         |         |--M. quadrispina Perkins 1899O94
         |         `--M. testaceusR96
         `--TrigonidiinaeO94
              |--AnaxiphaR96
              |--TrigonidiumO94
              |--ParametiocheR96
              |--Homeoxipha lycoidesR96
              |--Trigonidomorpha sjostedti Chopard 1925O94
              |--LaupalaO94
              |--*Paratrigonidium nitidumO94
              |--Falcicula hebardiO94
              |--MetiochodesO94
              |--CyrtoxiphoidesO94
              |--Nudilla Gorochov 1988 (n. d.)O94
              |    `--*N. pacifica (n. d.) [=Paratrigonidium pacificum]O94
              |--AmusurgusR96
              |    |--A. kanyakisR91
              |    `--A. mubboonisR96
              |--BalamaraR96
              |    |--B. albovittataR91
              |    `--B. gidyaR96
              |--CyrtoxiphaO94
              |    |--C. columbianaO94
              |    `--C. gundlachiO94
              |--MetiocheR96
              |    |--M. albovittataK70
              |    |--M. maoricumM83
              |    `--M. vittaticollisR96
              `--Prolaupala Otte 1994O94
                   |--*P. kaalensis Otte 1994O94
                   |--P. kukui Otte 1994O94
                   `--P. perkinsi Otte 1994O94

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B04] Barranco, P. 2004. Estudio del subgénero Zapetaloptila Gorochov & Llorente, 2001 y descripción de cuatro nuevas especies (Petaloptila Pantel, 1890, Orthoptera, Gryllidae). Graellsia 60 (1): 81–93.

[B01] Bolivar, I. 1901. Orthopterák [Orthoptères]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 223–243. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[FD01] Field, L. H., & N. A. Deans. 2001. Sexual selection and secondary sexual characters of wetas and king crickets. In: Field, L. H. (ed.) The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies pp. 179–204. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[GR02] Gorochov, A. V., & A. P. Rasnitsyn. 2002. Superorder Gryllidea Laicharting, 1781 (=Orthopteroidea Handlirsch, 1903). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 293–303. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[G38] Gurney, A. B. 1938. A synopsis of the order Zoraptera, with notes on the biology of Zorotypus hubbardi Caudell. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (3): 57–87.

[K70] Key, K. H. L. 1970. Orthoptera (grasshoppers, locusts, crickets). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 323–347. Melbourne University Press.

[K09] Köhler, G. 2009. Heuschrecken (Saltatoria) und Ohrwürmner (Dermaptera) im Immissionsgebiet des Düngemittelwerkes Steudnitz/Thüringen—eine Langzeitstudie (1978–2001). Mauritiana 20 (3): 601–646.

[K91] Kohn, M. 1991. Influence of the refuse dump biotopes on ecology of some gamasoid mites and ticks. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 199–204. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[M02] Machado, G. 2002. Maternal care, defensive behavior, and sociality in Neotropical Goniosoma harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones). Insectes Sociaux 49: 388–393.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[O94] Otte, D. 1994. The Crickets of Hawaii: origin, systematics and evolution. The Orthopterists’ Society: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

[PP72] Parkin, P., D. T. Parkin, A. W. Ewing & H. A. Ford. 1972. A report on the arthropods collected by the Edinburgh University Galapagos Islands expedition, 1968. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48 (2): 100–107.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[R15] Rehn, J. A. G. 1915. A further contribution to the knowledge of the Orthoptera of Argentina. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (2): 270–292.

[RH15] Rehn, J. A. G., & M. Hebard. 1915. The genus Gryllus (Orthoptera) as found in America. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (2): 293–322.

[R91] Rentz, D. C. F. 1991. Orthoptera (grasshoppers, locusts, katydids, crickets). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 369–393. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240–257.

 

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