Grypopterygomorpha

Adult of Stenoperla prasina, from here.

Belongs within: Plecoptera.

The name Grypopterygomorpha was used by Sinitshenkova (2002) for a clade of stoneflies including the modern Antarctoperlaria and its fossil relatives. They are characterised by wings with abundant cross-veins and the presence of both thoracic and abdominal gills in nymphs. Modern Antarctoperlaria are restricted to the Southern Hemisphere but stem grypopterygomorphs were more widespread with the Siberioperlidae found in Siberia and Mongolia (Sinitshenkova 2002).

The Antarctoperlaria are united by the presence of a sternal rather than tergal depressor muscle for the fore trochanter (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Nymphs of Eusthenioidea possess paired lateral gills on the first several abdominal segments whereas Gripopterygoidea have tubular anal gills (Richards & Davies 1977). The Eustheniidae retain remnants of the lateral abdominal gills into adulthood (Theischinger 1991).

<==GrypopterygomorphaS02
|--EuxenoperlidaeGE05
| |--Euxenoperla simplexRJ93
| `--Gondwanoperlidium argentinarumRJ93
|--SiberioperlidaeGE05
| |--Flexoperla flexuosaRJ93
| `--SiberioperlaS02
| |--S. lacunosaS02
| `--S. scobloiS02
`--AntarctoperlariaGE05
|--Eusthenioidea [Archiperlaria]T91
| |--DiamphipnoaTW05 [DiamphipnoidaeT91]
| | `--D. virecentipennisTW05
| `--EustheniidaeGE05
| | i. s.: StenoperlidiumS02
| | |--S. permianumS02
| | `--S. triassicum Riek 1956F71
| | EustheniopsisR70
| |--EustheniinaeT91
| | |--Eusthenia spectabilisT91, N74
| | `--ThaumatoperlaT91
| `--StenoperlaTW05 [StenoperlinaeT91]
| |--S. deniseT91
| |--S. kunaT91
| |--S. maclellaniTW05
| `--S. prasinaPC66
`--GripopterygoideaT91
|--Austroperlidae [Penturoperlidae]T91
| |--Austroperla cyreneTW05
| |--TasmanoperlaT91
| |--AustrohepturaT91
| |--AustropenturaT91
| |--AcruroperlaT91
| |--CrypturoperlaT91
| `--KlapopteryxRD77
`--GripopterygidaeGE05
|--Zelandoperla maculataPC66
|--Aucklandobius trivacuataPC66
|--ApteroperlaDGH93
|--HolcoperlaDGH93
|--Trinotoperla nivataTW05
|--Dinotoperla bassaeT91
|--EunotoperlaT91
|--IlliesoperlaT91
|--Riekoperla darlingtoniT91
|--NotoperlaT91
|--DundundraT91
|--NeboissoperlaT91
|--NescioperlaT91
|--CardioperlaT91
|--KirramaT91
|--LeptoperlaT91
|--NewmanoperlaT91
`--Eodinotoperla duncanae Jell & Duncan 1986RJ93

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[DGH93] Daugherty, C. H., G. W. Gibbs & R. A. Hitchmough. 1993. Mega-island or micro-continent? New Zealand and its fauna. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 8 (12): 437–442.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[N74] Norris, K. R. 1974. General biology. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 21–24.Melbourne University Press.

[PC66] Pendergrast, J. G., & D. R. Cowley. 1966. An Introduction to New Zealand Freshwater Insects. Collins: Auckland.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[R70] Riek, E. F. 1970. Plecoptera (stoneflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 314–322. Melbourne University Press.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Order Perlida Latreille, 1810. The stoneflies (=Plecoptera Burmeister, 1839). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 281–287. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240–257.

[T91] Theischinger, G. 1991. Plecoptera (stoneflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 311–319. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

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