Gustavia microcephala, copyright R. Penttinen.

Belongs within: Brachypylina.
Contains: GustaviaDorycranosus, Liacarus (Liacarus), Poronoticae, Xenillus, Furcoppia, Cultroribula.

The Gustavioidea are a morphologically diverse group of oribatids of uncertain affinities. They include the genus Gustavia, unique among oribatids in having styliform chelicerae with the fixed digit absent and the elongate movable digit distally serrate. It has been suggested that these chelicerae may be used to scrape bacterial fiels from damp substrates (Norton and Behan-Pelletier 2009).

Members of the families Astegistidae, Liacaridae and Xenillidae have chelate-dentate chelicerae. The Astegistidae have large genital plates, with the distance between the genital and anal plates usually less than the length of the anal plates. They are cosmopolitan, being most diverse in warm temperate regions of the world (Norton & Behan-Pelletier 2009). Astegistes, Furcoppia, Furcoribula and Maorizetes ferox have tridactyle legs; the remaining genera of Astegistidae are monodactyle. The Chilean genus Lamellozetes has extremely long lamellae that are longer than the underlying prodorsum (Balogh & Balogh 1992).

The Xenillidae are characterised by a strongly sculptured integument, in contrast to the smooth integument of the Liacaridae (Woolley & Higgins 1966). Xenilloides aenigmaticus has the prodorsal lamellae represented by two short converging costulae only, in contrast to the well-developed, apically fused lamellae of Xenillus. Most Liacaridae have the lamellae touching or fused medially but Planoristes acuspidatus has them well separated (Balogh & Balogh 1992).

The Peloppiidae is a morphologically diverse cosmopolitan family of oribatid mites, often with pelopsiform chelicerae (Norton & Behan-Pelletier 2009). The genera Ceratorchestes and Negroppia have particularly elongated epimeral regions, such that the venter of the podosoma is much longer than that of the opisthosoma (vs the converse in other genera) (Balogh & Balogh 1992).

The Liacaridae are a family of oribatid mites with converging lamellae, and two pairs of humeral setae c1 and c2 placed near to each other. The lamellae remain well-separated in Planoristes acuspidatus but are fused apically in the remaining genera. Birsteinius has monodactyle legs whereas the legs of Opsioristes, Liacarus and Dorycranosus are tridactyle. Opsioristes eurhostus has five pairs of genital setae vs six in Liacarus and Dorycranosus (Balogh & Balogh 1992).

The Tenuialidae are a family of oribatid mites characterised by the presence of a long humeral process. They are most abundant in forest litter in temperate regions of the Holarctic. Depressions in the podosoma allow members of this family to retract their legs (Norton & Behan-Pelletier 2009).

    |  i. s.: GustaviaS04
    |--Tenuialidae [Tenuialinae]SC19
    |    |--Ceratotenuiala Aoki & Maruyama 1983S04
    |    |    `--*C. echigoensis Aoki & Maruyama 1983S04
    |    |--Tenuialoides Woolley & Higgins 1966S04
    |    |    |--*T. medialis Woolley & Higgins 1966S04
    |    |    `--T. fusiformis Aoki 1969 [incl. Hafenferrefia translamellata Aoki & Fujikawa 1979]S04
    |    |--Hafenrefferia Oudemans 1906S04
    |    |    |--*H. gilvipes (Koch 1839)S04 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    `--H. acuta Aoki 1966S04
    |    |--Peltenuiala Norton 1983S04
    |    |    |--*P. pacifica Norton 1983S04
    |    |    `--P. orbiculata (Aoki & Ohnishi 1974) [=Hafenferrefia orbiculata]S04
    |    |--Tenuiala Ewing 1913S04
    |    |    |--*T. nuda Ewing 1913S04
    |    |    |--T. crenulata Woolley & Higgins 1966S04
    |    |    `--T. kurti Woolley & Higgins 1955S04
    |    `--Hafenferrefia Jacot 1939 [incl. Hafenrefferiella Sellnick 1952]S04
    |         |--*H. nitidula (Banks 1906) [=Galumna nitidula]S04
    |         |--H. hyrcanica (Krivolutsky 1967) [=Hafenrefferiella hyrcanica]S04
    |         |--H. imperialis (Berlese 1910) (n. d.) [=Achipteria imperialis]S04
    |         |--H. lata Golosova 1980S04
    |         `--H. nevesi (Sellnick 1952)S04 [=*Hafenrefferiella nevesiB65]
    |    |--DorycranosusNB-P09
    |    |--Opsioristes Woolley 1967S04
    |    |    `--*O. eurhostus Woolley 1967S04
    |    |--Planoristes Iturrondobeitia & Subías 1978S04
    |    |    `--*P. acuspidatus Iturrondobeitia & Subías 1978S04
    |    |--Birsteinius Krivolutsky 1965S04
    |    |    |--*B. clavatus Krivolutsky 1965S04
    |    |    |--B. krivolutskyi Rjabinin 1979S04
    |    |    |--B. microchaetus Krivolutsky 1967S04
    |    |    |--B. mongolicus (Mahunka 1964) [=Liacarus mongolicus]S04
    |    |    |--B. monticolus Wang & Shen 2001S04
    |    |    |--B. perlongoides Hammer 1977S04
    |    |    |--B. perlongus Krivolutsky 1965S04
    |    |    `--B. trimucronatus Yamamoto & Aoki 2000S04
    |    `--Liacarus Michael 1898SC19, S04
    |         |--L. (Liacarus)S04
    |         |--L. (Procorynetes Woolley 1969)S04
    |         |    |--L. (*P.) nigerrimus Berlese 1916S04
    |         |    |--L. (P.) andinus (Balogh 1984) [=Procorynetes andinus]S04
    |         |    |--L. (P.) breviclavatus Aoki 1970S04
    |         |    |--L. (P.) clavatus Fujikawa & Aoki 1970S04
    |         |    |--L. (P.) espeletiae (Balogh 1984) [=Procorynetes espeletiae]S04
    |         |    |--L. (P.) globifer (Kramer 1897) [=Leiosoma globiferum]S04
    |         |    `--L. (P.) tsendsureni (Bayartogtokh 1998) [=Procorynetes tsendsureni]S04
    |         `--L. (Rhaphidosus Woolley 1969S04
    |              |--L. (*R.) carolinensis Banks 1906S04
    |              |--L. (R.) acuminatus (Woolley 1969) [=Rhaphidosus acuminatus]S04
    |              |--L. (R.) alticola (Balogh 1984) [=Rhaphidosus alticola]S04
    |              |--L. (R.) bacillatus Fujikawa & Aoki 1970S04
    |              `--L. (R.) carbonarius (Banks 1906) [=Notaspis carbonaria]S04
       |  `--XenillidaePL17
       |       |--XenillusS-TK22
       |       `--Xenilloides Pérez-Íñigo & Baggio 1989S04
       |            `--*X. aenigmaticus Pérez-Íñigo & Baggio 1989S04
       `--+--Euzetes Berlese 1908S-TK22, S04 [Euzetidae]
          |    |--*E. globulus (Nicolet 1855)S04 (see below for synonymy)
          |    |--E. aterrimus (Koch 1844) (n. d.) [=Oribata aterrima]S04
          |    |--E. convexulus (Koch & Berendt 1854)S93
          |    `--E. seminulum (Müller 1776) (n. d.) [=Acarus seminulum]S04
               |--Cultroribella Mahunka 1985S04
               |    `--*C. lineata Mahunka 1985S04
               |--Quadroribula Balogh & Balogh 1992S04
               |    `--*Q. quadrisetosa (Balogh & Balogh 1983) [=Cultroribula quadrisetosa]S04
               |--Sulcoribula Hammer 1971S04
               |    `--*S. laticuspidata Hammer 1971S04
               |--Maorizetes Hammer 1966 [Maorizetidae]S04
               |    `--*M. ferox Hammer 1966S04
               |--Monofurcoppia Pérez-Íñigo & Sarasola 1995S04
               |    `--*M. austroamericana (Pérez-Íñigo & Sarasola 1995) [=Furcoppia (*Monofurcoppia) austroamericana]S04
               |--Astegistes Hull 1916 [incl. Cultrozetes Sellnick 1922]S04
               |    |--A. pilosus (Koch 1841)S04 (see below for synonymy)
               |    `--A. hallaensis Choi 1998S04
               |--Lamellozetes Covarrubias 1967S04
               |    |--*L. pseudoareolatus Covarrubias 1967S04
               |    `--L. chilensis Covarrubias 1967S04
               |--Adoristes Hull 1916S-TK22, S04
               |    |--*A. ovatus (Koch 1839)S04 (see below for synonymy)
               |    |--A. ammonoosuci Jacot 1938 [=A. ovatus ammonoosuci]S04
               |    `--A. poppei (Oudemans 1906) [=Liacarus poppei]S04
               `--Furcoribula Balogh 1943S04
                    |--*F. furcillata (Nordenskiöld 1901) (see below for synonymy)S04
                    |--F. bilamellata (Hall 1911) [=Notaspis bilamellata]S04
                    |--F. pacifica Krivolutsky 1975S04
                    `--F. tridentata Wen 1991S04

*Adoristes ovatus (Koch 1839)S04 [=Oribata ovataS04, Leiosoma ovataM98, Liacarus ovatusM98; incl. A. extraneus Mihelčič 1955S04, Conoppia grandis Berlese 1908S04, Leiosoma pyrigerum Berlese 1888S04, L. truncatum Canestrini & Fanzago 1876S04]

Astegistes pilosus (Koch 1841)S04 [=Zetes pilosusS04, Notaspis pilosaG48, N. pilosusG48, Phauloppia pilosaS04, Tricheremaeus pilosusG48; incl. Liacarus bicornis Warburton & Pearce 1905S04, *Astegistes bicornisS04, Zetes pilosulus Koch 1842M98]

*Euzetes globulus (Nicolet 1855)S04 [=Oribata globulaS04, Oribates globulusBA85; incl. Oribata nitens Johnston 1853 non Gervais 1844S04, Euzetes nitensL87]

*Furcoribula furcillata (Nordenskiöld 1901) [=Notaspis furcillata; incl. N. bicuspidata Storkan 1925, Eremaeus copulatus Oudemans 1906, Cultroribula confinis magna Ewing 1917]S04

*Hafenrefferia gilvipes (Koch 1839)S04 [=Oribata gilvipesS04, Oribates gilvipesM98; incl. Liacarus auritus Nordenskiöld 1901S04, L. pterotus Coggi 1900S04]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B65] Balogh, J. 1965. A synopsis of the world oribatid (Acari) genera. Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 11 (1–2): 5–99.

[BA85] Bernini, F., & R. Arcidiacono. 1985. Notulae oribatologicae XXXVI. A catalogue of the Sicilian oribatids (Acarida, Oribatida). Animalia 12 (1–3): 165–205.

[G48] Grandjean, F. 1948. Au sujet des aires poreuses respiratoires portées par les pattes chez les oribates (acariens). Bulletin Biologique de la France et de la Belgique 82 (1): 24–30.

[L87] Luxton, M. 1987. The oribatid mites (Acari: Cryptostigmata) of J. E. Hull. Journal of Natural History 21: 1273–1291.

[M98] Michael, A. D. 1898. Oribatidae. In: H. Lohmann (ed.) Das Tierreich. Eine Zusammenstellung und Kennzeichnung der rezenten Tierformen vol. 3. Acarina pp. 1–93. R. Friedländer und Sohn: Berlin.

[NB-P09] Norton, R. A., & V. M. Behan-Pelletier. 2009. Suborder Oribatida. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 430–564. Texas Tech University Press.

[PL17] Pachl, P., A. C. Lindl, A. Krause, S. Scheu, I. Schaefer & M. Maraun. 2017. The tropics as an ancient cradle of oribatid mite diversity. Acarologia 57 (2): 309–322.

[S93] Selden, P. A. 1993. Arthropoda (Aglaspidida, Pycnogonida and Chelicerata). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 297–320. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S04] Subías, L. S. 2004. Listado sistemático, sinonímico y biogeográfico de los ácaros oribátidos (Acariformes, Oribatida) del mundo (1758–2002). Graellsia 60 (número extraordinario): 3–305.

[S-TK22] Szudarek-Trepto, N., A. Kaźmierski, A. Skoracka, M. Lewandowski & J. Dabert. 2022. Molecular phylogeny supports the monophyly of the mite supercohort Eupodides (Acariformes: Trombidiformes) and greatly coincides with traditional morphological definition of the taxon. Annales Zoologici 72 (4): 757–786.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *