Evadne spinifera, photographed by Mª Carmen Mingorance Rodríguez.

Belongs within: Cladoceromorpha.

The Gymnomera are a group of carnivorous water fleas in which the bivalved carapace is reduced to a small dorsal brood sac, and the phyllopodia are modified into rod-shaped jointed appendages (Ax 1999). Members include the raptorial genus Leptodora in which the body is elongate and all legs prehensile.

Gymnomera [Cephalota]
| i. s.: ZoeaL02b
| |--Z. longispina Lucas 1846E12
| `--Z. pelagicaL02b [incl. Monoculus taurusL02a]
| Branchiopoda stagnalis (Linnaeus 1758)L02b, L58 (see below for synonymy)
|--LeptodoraLSE13 [HaplopodaMD01, Leptodoridae]
| |--L. hyalinaD01
| `--L. kindtiiB01
|--Polyphemus Müller 1776BR05
| |--P. oculus [=Monoculus oculus; incl. Cephaloculus stagnorum]L02b
| `--P. pediculus (Linnaeus 1758)D01, L58 [=Monoculus pediculusL02b]
|--E. nordmaniB26
|--E. polyphemoidesB64
`--E. spiniferaB26

Branchiopoda stagnalis (Linnaeus 1758)L02b, L58 [=Cancer stagnalisL02b, Gammarus stagnalisL02b; incl. Apus pisciformisL02b]

*Type species of generic name indicated


Ax, P. 1999. Das System der Metazoa II. Ein Lehrbuch der phylogenetischen Systematik. Gustav Fisher Verlag: Stuttgart (translated: 2000. Multicellular Animals: The phylogenetic system of the Metazoa vol. 2. Springer: Berlin).

[B26] Bigelow, H. B. 1926. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 40 (2): 1–509.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[B64] Brady, G. S. 1864. On the marine cyclopoid Entomostraca (Calanidae), with notices of some species new to Britain. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33 (Notices and Abstracts): 99–100.

[B01] Brancelj, A. 2001. Male of Moraria radovnae Brancelj, 1988 (Copepoda: Crustacea), and notes on endemic and rare copepod species from Slovenia and neighbouring countries. Hydrobiologia 453/454: 513–524.

[D01] Daday, E. 1901. Édesvizi mikroszkópi állatok [Mikroskopische Süsswasserthiere]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 375–470. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[L02a] Latreille, P. A. 1802a. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L02b] Latreille, P. A. 1802b. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 4. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[LSE13] Legg, D. A., M. D. Sutton & G. D. Edgecombe. 2013. Arthropod fossil data increase congruence of morphological and molecular phylogenies. Nature Communications 4: 2485.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MD01] Martin, J. W., & G. E. Davis. 2001. An updated classification of the Recent Crustacea. Natural History Museum Los Angeles County, Science Series 39: 1–124.


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