Hunting Clione limacina, copyright Alexander Semenov.

Belongs within: Euopisthobranchia.

The Gymnosomata are a group of shell-less, pelagic marine gastropods in which the foot has been modified into a pair of large parapodia used for swimming. The lateral position of the parapodia well behind the head has lead to their vernacular name of ‘sea angels’.

    |--Hydromyloidea [Gymnoptera, Laginiopsina]BR05
    |    |--Laginiopsis Pruvot-Fol 1922 [Laginiopsidae]BR05
    |    |    `--*L. triloba Pruvot-Fol 1922BR17
    |    `--Hydromyles Gistel 1848 (see below for synonymy)BR05
    |         |--*H. hemispherica (Rang 1827) [=*Euribia hemispherica]BR17
    |         |--*Cymodocea’ diaphana d’Orbigny 1836 [=*Pterocymodocea diaphana]BR17
    |         `--*Psyche’ globulosa Rang 1825 [=*Anopsia globulosa, *Halopsyche globulosa]BR17
    `--Clionoidea [Cliacea, Deutocephala]BR05
         |--Cliopsis Troschel 1854 [=Clionopsis (l. c.); Clionopsidae, Cliopsidae]BR05
         |    `--*C. krohnii Troschel 1854BR17
         |    |--Notobranchaea Pelseneer 1886 [Notobranchaeinae]BR05
         |    |    `--*N. macdonaldi Pelseneer 1886BR17
         |    `--Prionoglossa Tesch 1950 [Prionoglossinae]BR05
         |         `--*P. tetrabranchiata (Bonnevie 1913) [=Notobranchaea tetrabranchiata]BR17
         |--Pneumodermatidae [Micropterygia, Pneumodermonidae, Pneumonodermatidae, Pneumonodermoidae]BR05
         |    |--Crucibranchaea Pruvot-Fol 1942 [Crucibranchaeidae, Crucibranchaeinae]BR05
         |    |    `--*C. macrochira (Meisenheimer 1905) [=Pneumodermopsis macrochira]BR17
         |    |--Spongiobranchaea d’Orbigny 1840P61
         |    |    `--*S. australis d’Orbigny 1840P61
         |    |--PneumodermopsisM05
         |    |    |--P. ciliata (Gegenbaur 1855) [=Pneumodermon ciliatum, Dexiobranchaea ciliata]M05
         |    |    `--P. (Pneumodermopsis) paucidens (Boas 1866)H01
         |    `--Pneumoderma de Roissy 1805 [=Pneumodermon, Pneumonoderma, Pneumonodermon; Pneumodermites]BR05
         |         |--*P. peronii Cuvier 1816BR17
         |         |--P. atlanticaCR13
         |         |--P. pacifica Dall 1871O27
         |         `--P. pygmaeum (Tesch 1903)H01
         `--Clionidae [Clionidia]BR05
              |--Thliptodontinae [Thliptodonidae, Thliptodontidae]BR05
              |    |--Cephalobrachia Bonnevie 1913BR05, BR17 [Cephalobrachiinae, Cephalobrachinae]
              |    |    `--*C. macrochaeta Bonnevie 1913BR17
              |    `--Thliptodon Boas 1886 [incl. Pteroceanis Meisenheimer 1902; Pteroceanidae]BR05
              |         |--*T. gegenbauri Boas 1886BR17
              |         `--*Pteroceanis’ diaphana Meisenheimer 1902BR17
              `--Clioninae [Cliodinae]BR05
                   |--Fowlerina Pelseneer 1906 [Fowlerinae, Fowlerininae]BR05
                   |    `--*F. zetesios Pelseneer 1906BR17
                   `--Clione Pallas 1774BR05
                        |--*C. borealis Pallas 1774BR17 [=Clio borealisM05]
                        |--C. elegantissima Dall 1871O27
                        `--C. limacina Phipps 1773O27 (see below for synonymy)

Clione limacina Phipps 1773O27 [=Clio limacinaM05; incl. Clione dalli Krause 1883M05, Clio miquelonensis Rang 1825M05, Clione papilionacea Jeffreys 1869M05, Lernea papilionaceaM05, Clio retusa Müller 1776M05]

Hydromyles Gistel 1848BR05 [=Euribia Rang 1827 non Meigen 1800BR05; incl. Anopsia Gistel 1848BR05, Cymodocea d’Orbigny 1834 nec Rafinesque 1814 nec Lamouroux 1816 nec Leach 1818BR05, Halopsyche Keferstein 1862 non de Saussure 1857BR05, Psyche Rang 1825 (preoc.)BR17, Pterocymodocea Keferstein 1862BR05; Anopsidae, Anopsiidae, Cymodoceadae, Cymodoceidae, Euribiacea, Euribiidae, Eurybiidae, Halopsychidae, Hydromylidae, Pterocymodoceidae, Sclerodermata]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[H01] Huys, R. 2001. Splanchnotrophid systematics: a case of polyphyly and taxonomic myopia. Journal of Crustacean Biology 21 (1): 106–156.

[M05] Meisenheimer, J. 1905. Die arktischen Pteropoden. In: Römer, F., & F. Schaudinn (eds) Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenstellun der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pp. 407–430. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 1. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

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