Gyrinidae

Macrogyrus striolatus, copyright Australian Museum.

Belongs within: Adephaga.
Contains: Gyrininae.

The Gyrinidae, whirligig beetles, are aquatic beetles that swim using paddle-like mid and hind legs, and have the eyes separated into dorsal and ventral sections by a bridge of cuticle. Most living species are included in the subfamily Gyrininae except Spanglerogyrus albiventris of eastern North America, which has the dorsal and ventral sections of the eye less widely separated than Gyrininae, and has meso- and metatibiae that are elongated well past their articulation with the tarsi (Roughley 2001).

Characters (from Beutel et al. 2013): Antenna with pedicellus ear-shaped, with fring of sensory hairs; pronoto-elytral angle absent; mesoventrite flat and extensive, without hexagonal groove and anterolateral grooves; mesocoxae triangular; metacoxal plates absent; mid and hind legs strongly shortened, broad and paddle-like. Larva with distinct fossa maxillaris, intramaxillary movability present, maxillary palp with two antagonistic muscles.

<==Gyrinidae [Gyrinites, Gyrinoidea]
    |--Triadogyrus sternalis Ponomarenko 1977BW13
    |--Spanglerogyrus Folkerts 1979 [Spanglerogyrinae]R01
    |    `--S. albiventrisLM87
    `--+--Mesodineutes amurensis Ponomarenko 1977BW13
       |--HeterogyrusVB21
       `--GyrininaeLM87
Gyrinidae incertae sedis:
  CretotortorS02
  MesogyrusP02
    |--M. antiquusP02
    |--M. sibiricus Ponomarenko 1985RJ93
    `--M. striatusS02
  AnagyrinusGE05
  AngarogyrusGE05
  Gyrinoides limbatusP92
  Dinentes unidentatus Aubé 1882R89a
  OrectogyrusR89b
    |--O. alluaudi Régimbart 1889R89b
    |--O. dimidiatusR89b
    `--O. specularis [incl. O. specularis var. nudivittis]R89b

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BW13] Beutel, R. G., B. Wang, J.-J. Tan, S.-Q. Ge, D. Ren & X.-K. Yang. 2013. On the phylogeny and evolution of Mesozoic and extant lineages of Adephaga (Coleoptera, Insecta). Cladistics 29 (2): 147–165.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[LM87] Lawrence, J. F., B. P. Moore, J. E. Pyke & T. A. Weir. 1987. Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 4. Coleoptera: Archostemata, Myxophaga and Adephaga. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[P02] Ponomarenko, A. G. 2002. Superorder Scarabaeidea Laicharting, 1781. Order Coleoptera Linné, 1758. The beetles. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 164–176. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[R89a] Régimbart, M. 1889a. Contributions a la faune Indo-Chinoise. 2e mémoire. Hydrocanthares. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 147–156.

[R89b] Régimbart, M. 1889b. Voyage de M. Ch. Alluaud dans le territoire d’Assinie (Afrique occidentale) en juillet et août 1886. 2e mémoire. Dytiscidae et Gyrinidae. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 247–250.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[R01] Roughley, R. E. 2001. Gyrinidae Latreille, 1810. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr & M. C. Thomas (eds) American Beetles vol. 1. Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga, Polyphaga: Staphyliniformia pp. 133–137. CRC Press: Boca Raton.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 388–426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[VB21] Vasilikopoulos, A., M. Balke, S. Kukowka, J. M. Pflug, S. Martin, K. Meusemann, L. Hendrich, C. Mayer, D. R. Maddison, O. Niehuis, R. G. Beutel & B. Misof. 2021. Phylogenomic analyses clarify the pattern of evolution of Adephaga (Coleoptera) and highlight phylogenetic artefacts due to model misspecification and excessive data trimming. Systematic Entomology 46: 991–1018.

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