Tall kangaroo paw Anigozanthos flavidus, copyright Consultaplantas.

Belongs within: Commelinales.
Contains: Conostylis.

The Haemodoraceae are perennial monocotyledons that are most diverse in Australia and South Africa, with smaller numbers in Malaysia and the Americas (Macfarlane et al. 1987).

Characters (from Macfarlane et al. 1987): Perennial herbs, rhizomatous, bulbous or tuberous. Leaves mainly basal, equitant, with sheathing base and unifacial lamina; stem leaves smaller or absent. Inflorescence a panicle, raceme, cyme or cymose umbel, often a number of cymes arranged racemosely, occasionally flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual, actinomorphic or zygomorphic, conspicuously hairy or glabrous. Perianth of six segments in one or two whorls, free or partly connate, the tube (when present) short to long, straight or curved. Stamens 3 or 6, when 3 opposite inner perianth segments; filaments free or adnate to perianth tube; anthers basifixed or dorsifixed, dehiscing by longitudinal slits. Ovary inferior, half-inferior or superior, 3-locular; ovules 1 to many per locule; style slender or stout. Fruit a loculicidal or septifragal capsule or nut-like. Seeds with copious endosperm.

    |  i. s.: WachendorfiaHE80
    |           |--W. paniculataMH87
    |           `--W. thyrsiflora Linnaeus 1759HE80
    |         BarberettaNDG98
    |         Mondo intermediumSS72
    |         LachnanthesA02
    |           |--L. carolinianaA02
    |           `--L. tinctoriaMM96
    |--+--Xiphidium caeruleumDS04
    |  `--Haemodorum Smith 1798DS04, MH87 [Haemodoroideae]
    |       |--*H. corymbosum Vahl 1805 [incl. H. teretifolium Br. 1810]MH87
    |       |--H. austroqueenslandicum Domin 1915MH87
    |       |--H. brevicaule Muell. 1858MH87
    |       |--H. brevisepalum Benth. 1873MH87
    |       |--H. coccineum Br. 1810 [incl. H. corymbosum var. gracilescens Domin 1915, H. subvirens Muell. 1858]MH87
    |       |--H. discolor Macfarlane 1987MH87
    |       |--H. distichophyllum Hook. 1851MH87
    |       |--H. ensifolium Muell. 1858 [incl. H. longifolium Fitzg. 1918]MH87
    |       |--H. gracile Macfarlane 1987MH87
    |       |--H. laxum Br. 1810MH87
    |       |--H. loratum Macfarlane 1987MH87
    |       |--H. paniculatum Lindley 1840 [incl. H. strictum Endl. in Lehmann 1846]MH87
    |       |--H. parviflorum Benth. 1873 [incl. H. flaviflorum Fitzg. 1918, H. leptostachyum Benth. 1873]MH87
    |       |--H. planifolium Br. 1810MH87
    |       |--H. simplex Lindley 1840 [incl. H. polycephalum Endl. in Lehmann 1846]MH87
    |       |--H. simulans Muell. 1870MH87
    |       |--H. sparsiflorum Muell. 1870MH87
    |       |--H. spicatum Br. 1810 [incl. H. edule Lehm. ex Endl. in Lehmann 1846]MH87
    |       |--H. tenuifolium Cunn. ex Benth. 1873MH87
    |       `--H. venosum Macfarlane 1987MH87
    `--Conostylidoideae [Conostyloideae]MH87
         |--Phlebocarya Br. 1810 [Phlebocaryeae]MH87
         |    |--*P. ciliata Br. 1810 [incl. P. laevis Lindley 1840, P. ciliata var. laevis (Lindley) Benth. 1873]MH87
         |    |--P. filifolia (Muell.) Benth. 1873 [=P. ciliata var. filifolia Muell. 1873]MH87
         |    `--P. pilosissima (Muell.) Benth. 1873 [=P. ciliata var. pilosissima Muell. 1873]MH87
         |         |--P. p. ssp. pilosissimaMH87
         |         `--P. p. ssp. teretifolia Macfarlane 1987MH87
         |--Tribonanthes Endl. in Endlicher & Fenzl 1839 [Tribonantheae]MH87
         |    |--*T. australis Endl. in Endlicher & Fenzl 1839 [incl. T. variabilis Lindley 1840]MH87
         |    |--T. brachypetala Lindley 1840 [incl. T. odora Endl. in Lehmann 1846 (nom. illeg.)]MH87
         |    |--T. longipetala Lindley 1840 [incl. T. uniflora Lindley 1840]MH87
         |    |--T. purpurea Macfarlane & Hopper 1987MH87
         |    `--T. violacea Endl. in Lehmann 1846MH87
         `--Conostylideae [Conostyleae]MH87
              |--Blancoa Lindley 1840 (see below for synonymy)MH87
              |    `--*B. canescens Lindley 1840 (see below for synonymy)MH87
              |--Macropidia Drumm. ex Harvey 1855 [=Anigozanthos sect. Macropidia (Drumm. ex Harvey) Geer. 1969]MH87
              |    `--M. fuliginosa (Hook.) Druce 1917 (see below for synonymy)MH87
              `--Anigozanthos Labillardière 1800 (see below for synonymy)MH87
                   |--A. subg. AnigozanthosMH87
                   |    |--A. sect. Anigozanthos [=A. sect. Dianthesis Benth. 1873]MH87
                   |    |    |--*A. rufus Labillardière 1798 (see below for synonymy)MH87
                   |    |    `--A. pulcherrimus Hook. 1845MH87
                   |    |--A. sect. Ceratandri Benth. 1873 [=A. sect. Ceratandra]MH87
                   |    |    `--A. (sect. *C.) flavidus DC. in Redouté 1807 (see below for synonymy)MH87
                   |    `--A. sect. Concatenati Hopper 1987MH87
                   |         |--A. (sect. *C.) preissii Endl. in Lehmann 1846 (see below for synonymy)MH87
                   |         `--A. onycis George 1974MH87
                   `--A. subg. Haplanthesis (Benth.) Hopper 1987 [=A. sect. Haplanthesis Benth. 1873]MH87
                        |--A. (subg. *H.) manglesii Don in Sweet 1834 [incl. A. manglesii var. leptophyllus Domin 1912]MH87
                        |    |  i. s.: A. m. var. × angustifolius Lindley 1837 [A. manglesii × A. viridis]MH87
                        |    |         A. m. var. × virescens Ostenf. 1921 [A. manglesii × A. viridis]MH87
                        |    |--A. m. ssp. manglesii [incl. A. m. var. flavescens Ostenf. 1921]MH87
                        |    `--A. m. ssp. quadrans Hopper 1987MH87
                        |--A. bicolor Endl. in Lehmann 1846MH87
                        |    |--A. b. ssp. bicolor (see below for synonymy)MH87
                        |    |--A. b. ssp. decrescens Hopper 1987MH87
                        |    |--A. b. ssp. exstans Hopper 1987MH87
                        |    `--A. b. ssp. minor (Benth.) Hopper 1987 [=A. bicolor var. minor Benth. 1873]MH87
                        |--A. gabrielae Domin 1912MH87
                        |--A. humilis Lindley 1840 [incl. A. dorrienii Domin 1912, A. minimus Lehm. 1848]MH87
                        |    |--A. h. ssp. humilisMH87
                        |    `--A. h. ssp. chrysanthus Hopper 1987MH87
                        |--A. kalbarriensis Hopper 1978MH87
                        `--A. viridis Endl. in Lehmann 1846MH87
                             |--A. v. ssp. viridisMH87
                             `--A. v. ssp. terraspectans Hopper 1987MH87

Anigozanthos Labillardière 1800 [=Schwaegrichenia Sprengel 1815 (nom. illeg.); incl. Anigosia Salisb. 1812]MH87

Anigozanthos bicolor Endl. in Lehmann 1846 ssp. bicolor [incl. A. bicolor var. major Benth. 1873, A. viridis var. major (Benth.) Geer. 1970]MH87

Anigozanthos flavidus DC. in Redouté 1807 [=*Anigosia flavida (DC.) Salisb. 1812, Schwaerichenia flavida (DC.) Sprengel 1815, Anigozanthos grandiflorus Salisb. 1808; incl. Anigozanthos flavidus var. bicolor Lindley 1838 non Anigozanthos bicolor Endl. in Lehmann 1846, Anigozanthos coccineus Lindley ex Paxton 1839]MH87

Anigozanthos preissii Endl. in Lehmann 1846 [incl. A. preissii var. plumosus Endl. in Lehmann 1846]MH87

*Anigozanthos rufus Labillardière 1798 [=A. (sect. *Dianthesis) rufus, *Schwaegrichenia rufa (Labillardière) Sprengel 1815; incl. A. tyrianthinus Hook. 1850]MH87

Blancoa Lindley 1840 [=Conostylis sect. Blancoa (Lindley) Kuntze in von Post & Kuntze 1903, Styloconus Baillon 1894 (nom. illeg.)]MH87

*Blancoa canescens Lindley 1840 [=Conostylis canescens (Lindley) Muell. 1873, *Styloconus canescens (Lindley) Baillon 1894]MH87

Macropidia fuliginosa (Hook.) Druce 1917 [=Anigozanthos fuliginosus Hook. 1847; incl. *M. fumosa Drumm. ex Harvey 1855]MH87

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A02] Anderson, R. S. 2002. Curculionidae Latreille 1802. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 722–815. CRC Press.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467–510.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. 3. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[MH87] Macfarlane, T. D., S. D. Hopper, R. W. Purdie, A. S. George & S. J. Patrick. 1987. Haemodoraceae. Flora of Australia 45: 55–148.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1–487.

[NDG98] Neal, P. R., A. Dafni & M. Giurfa. 1998. Floral symmetry and its role in plant-pollinator systems: terminology, distribution, and hypotheses. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 345–373.

[SS72] Singh, V., & H. Singh. 1972. A contribution to the flora of Gangolihat block in Pithoragarh District. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (2): 352–368.

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