Hakea

 Silky hakea Hakea sericea with fruit, photographed by Edoarado.

Belongs within: Grevilleoideae.

Hakea is an Australian genus of trees and shrubs characterised by the production of persistent woody fruits that do not open to release their seeds until the death of the bearing branch from fire or other causes. Mature fruit size is correlated with the length of time the plant may retain the fruit before release (Groom & Lamont 2004). Many Hakea species have notably spiny leaves.

A number of species are grown as ornamental plants, and some have become invasive weeds in South Africa and New Zealand. These include the silky hakea or needle bush Hakea sericea, a native of south-eastern Australia which has rigid needle-like leaves about six centimetres in length. Hairy hakea H. gibbosa has longer, hairy leaves and larger fruits than H. sericea. The willow-leaved hakea H. salicifolia bears flattened leaves and the surface of its fruits are covered by black, blister-like warts. Kodjet H. laurina is a species found in southwestern Australia with flat leaves tapering to a blunt point and bearing red and cream, globular flowers.

Characters (from Harden 2001): Shrubs or small trees. Leaves flat with similar surfaces or terete, and then entire or divided into segments, or rarely trigonous. Conflorescences axillary, raceme-like with paired flowers, or in several- to many-flowered clusters, and then flowers not regularly or obviously paired. Flowers zygomorphic. Perianth tube revolute and curved under the limb; tepals splitting to base or remaining fused and splitting on upper side only, becoming free. Anthers 4, sessile. Hypogynous glands fused, horseshoe-shaped, obovoid or rarely disc-shaped, rarely absent. Ovary shortly stipitate, glabrous; ovules 2; style longer than the perianth, curved and protruding from a slit in the perianth before being released; pollen presenter an oblique or lateral disc or an erect cone. Follicle woody, surface smooth, wrinkled, blistered or warty, sometimes prominently beaked (apical portion of the fruit beyond the main swollen body of the fruit), often with apical horns (pair of hard points just behind fruit apex, often broken off in mature fruit); secondary thickening formed by the cambium, the fruit opening in 2 valves; seeds 2, compressed, testa expanded into a wing, usually at one end; seeds generally placed near the upper suture of the fruit and mostly borne in more or less same direction as stalk of fruit.

Hakea
|--H. acicularisH87
|--H. ambiguaRL05
|--H. amplexicaulisGK00
|--H. arborescensLK14
|--H. browniiOS04
|--H. ceratophyllaGK00
|--H. chordophyllaLK14
|--H. commutataG04b
|--H. coriaceaM93
|--H. corymbosaGK00
|--H. costataB14
|--H. cristataJK08
|--H. cunninghamiiC16
|--H. dactyloidesB88
|--H. drupaceaH06
|--H. duttoni Ettingshausen 1886F71
|--H. epiglottisSN08
|--H. erectaG04b
|--H. erinaceaGL04
|--H. ferrugineaCFH05
|--H. gibbosaTW07
|--H. gilbertiiGK00
|--H. hastataOS04
|--H. incrassataOS04
|--H. lasianthoidesJK08
|--H. lehmannianaOS04
|--H. leucopteraB00
|--H. lissocarphaJK08
|--H. loranthifoliaLK00
|--H. loreaLK14
| |--H. l. ssp. loreaLK14
| `--H. l. ssp. borealisLK14
|--H. macraeanaM89
|--H. macrocarpaLK14
|--H. marginataJK08
|--H. meisnerianaG04b
|--H. microcarpaC08
|--H. minymaG04a
|--H. muellerianaB00
|--H. multilineataG04b
|--H. nodosaTW07
|--H. oleifoliaGK00
|--H. persiehanaC16
|--H. petiolarisA91
|--H. platyspermaGL04
|--H. preissiiKM08
|--H. prostrataGL04
|--H. recurvaS95
|--H. rhombaleB05
|--H. ruscifoliaJK08
|--H. salicifoliaH06
|--H. salignaNC91
|--H. scopariaG04b
|--H. sericeaTW07
|--H. spathulataLK00
|--H. stenocarpaJK08
|--H. stenophyllaKM08
|--H. subereaB05
|--H. subsulcataG04b
|--H. sulcataGK00
|--H. teritifoliaC96
|--H. trifurcataGL04
|--H. undulataGL04
|--H. variaS35
|--H. victoriaMJH05
`--H. vittataE65
|--H. v. var. vittataE65
`--H. v. var. glabriflora Black ex Willis 1957E65

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A91] Abbott, I. 1991. Annual activity of a population of Catasarcus asphaltinus Thompson (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Perth, Western Australia. Australian Entomological Magazine 18 (1): 21–24.

[B05] Beard, J. S. 2005. Drainage evolution in the Lake Disappointment Catchment, Western Australia—a discussion. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (2): 57–64.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature’s gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[C96] Calder, A. A. 1996. Click beetles: genera of the Australian Elateridae (Coleoptera). CSIRO Australia: Collingwood.

[C08] Cambage, R. H. 1908. Notes on the native flora of New South Wales. Part VI. Deepwater to Torrington and Emmaville. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33 (1): 45–65, pls 1–2.

[C16] Cambage, R. H. 1916. Notes on the native flora of tropical Queensland. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 49 (3): 389–447, pls 57–61.

[CFH05] Cochrane, J. A., J. A. Friend & S. J. E. Hill. 2005. Endozoochory and the Australian bluebell: comsumption of Billardiera fusiformis (Labill.) Payer (Pittosporaceae) seeds by three mammal species at Two Peoples Bay Nature Reserve, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 191–196.

[E65] Eardley, C. M. 1965. Diagnoses to new taxa. In: Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae pp. 945–946. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[G04a] Gibson, N. 2004a. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35–47.

[G04b] Gibson, N. 2004b. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49–62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[GL04] Groom, P. K., & B. B. Lamont. 2004. Fruit and seed development in two Hakea species (Proteaceae). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (4): 135–138.

[H87] Haviland, E. 1887. Flowering seasons of Australian plants. No. II. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1103–1104.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201–222.

[JK08] Johnstone, R. E., & T. Kirkby. 2008. Distribution, status, social organisation, movements and conservation of Baudin’s cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus baudinii) in south-west Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 107–118.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11–19.

[LK00] Lowrie, A., & K. F. Kenneally. 2000. Three new species of Stylidium (Stylidiaceae) from south-west Western Australia. Nuytsia 13: 293–302.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M89] Maiden, J. H. 1889. Notes on the geographical distribution of some New South Wales plants, compiled from information supplied by W. Bauerlen, and from some diagnoses by Baron von Mueller, K.C.M.G., F.R.S., &c. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (1): 107–112.

[MJH05] Mast, A. R., E. H. Jones & S. P. Havery. 2005. An assessment of old and new DNA sequence evidence for the paraphyly of Banksia with respect to Dryandra (Proteaceae). Australian Systematic Botany 18 (1): 75–88.

[M93] Mollemans, F. H. 1993. Drummondita wilsonii, Philotheca langei and P. basistyla (Rutaceae), new species from south-west Western Australia. Nuytsia 9: 95–109.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[RL05] Rafferty, C., & B. B. Lamont. 2005. Selective feeding by macropods on vegetation regenerating following fire. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 155–165.

[SN08] Schmidt, E. R., & T. R. New. 2008. The Psocoptera (Insecta) of Tasmania, Australia. Memoirs of Museum Victoria 65: 71–152.

[S95] Smith, G. T. 1995. Species richness, habitat and conservation of scorpions in the Western Australian wheatbelt. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 52: 55–66.

[S35] Solomon, M. E. 1935. On a new genus and two new species of Western Australian Aleyrodidae. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 21: 75–91.

[TW07] Thongphak, D., & Q. Wang. 2007. Taxonomic revision of the longicorn beetle genus Uracanthus Hope 1833 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae: Uracanthini) from Australia. Zootaxa 1569: 1–139.

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