Green-lipped abalone Haliotis laevigata, copyright Peter Southwood.

Belongs within: Vetigastropoda.

Haliotis, the abalones, is a cosmopolitan genus of marine gastropods with an ear-shaped shell bearing a spiral series of openings allowing exhalation of water. A number of species are highly prized by humans as food and have been intensively harvested around the world. The paua H. iris of New Zealand is also used for jewellery made from the shell’s ornately patterned nacreous interior.

Characters (from Knight et al. 1960): Shell auriform, depressed, with spire more or less strongly excentric and protruding only slightly or not at all; aperture broad, occupying most of underside; to left of aperture a broad, smooth labial area, beyond which narrow base of shell may be just exposed; shell wall with spiral row of small tremata, commonly on tubular projections, which become infilled progressively during growth, the last few (5 to 9) remaining open and serving as exhalant outlets; interior nacreous; no operculum.

<==Haliotis Linnaeus 1758KC60 (see below for synonymy)
    |--*H. (Haliotis) asinina Linnaeus 1758KC60 [=*Teinotis asininaKC60; incl. *Deridobranchus argus Ehrenberg 1831BR17]
    |--H. (Euhaliotis Wenz 1938)KC60
    |    `--H. (*E.) midae Linnaeus 1758KC60
    |--H. (Exohaliotis Cotton & Godfrey 1933)KC60
    |    `--H. (*E.) cyclobates Péron 1816KC60, WG71 [incl. H. excavata Lamarck 1822W93]
    |--H. (Marinauris Iredale 1927)KC60
    |    `--H. (*M.) melculus (Iredale 1927) [=*Marinauris melculus]KC60
    |--H. (Notohaliotis Cotton & Godfrey 1933)KC60
    |    `--H. (N.) ruber Leach 1814KC60, WG71 (see below for synonymy)
    |--H. (Ovinotis Cotton 1943)KC60
    |    `--H. (*O.) ovina Gmelin 1791KC60 [incl. H. latilabris Philippi 1848W93]
    |--H. (Padollus Montfort 1810) [incl. Neohaliotis Cotton & Godfrey 1933]KC60
    |    |--H. (P.) scalaris Leach 1814KC60 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--H. (P.) parva Linnaeus 1758KC60
    |    `--H. (P.) roberti McLean 1970BC01
    |--H. (Paua Fleming 1952)P61
    |    `--H. (*P.) iris Gmelin 1791P61
    |--H. (Sanhaliotis Iredale 1929)KC60
    |    |--H. (*S.) varia Linnaeus 1758KC60 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--H. (S.) coccinea [incl. H. janus, H. zealandica]T63
    |--H. (Schismotis Gray 1856)KC60
    |    `--H. (S.) laevigata Donovan 1808 [incl. H. albicans Quoy & Gaimard 1834, *Schismotis excisa Gray 1856]KC60
    `--H. (Sulculus Adams & Adams 1854)P61
         |--H. (*S.) incisa Reeve 1846KC60
         |--H. (S.) australis Gmelin 1790P61 [incl. H. aleata Bolten 1798F27a, H. plicata Karsten 1789 (n. n.)F27a]
         |--H. (S.) tuberculata Linnaeus 1758KC60, RP07
         |    |--H. t. tuberculataT63
         |    `--H. t. guineensis Gmelin 1791 [incl. H. decussata Philippi 1850, H. tuberculata rosacea]T63
         `--H. (S.) virginea Gmelin 1790P61
              |--H. v. virgineaP61
              |--H. v. crispata Gould 1847P61
              |--H. v. huttoni Filhol 1880P61
              `--H. v. morioria Powell 1938P61
Haliotis incertae sedis:
  H. antiqua Binkhorst 1861KC60
  H. assimilis Dall 1878O27
  H. astricta Reeve 1846H09
  H. aurantium Simone 1997S11
  H. brazieri Angas 1869W93
  H. californiensis Swainson 1822O27 [=H. cracherodii var. californiensisC64]
    |--H. c. californiensisO27
    `--H. c. bonita Orcutt 1900O27
  H. coccoradiata Reeve 1846WG71
  H. conicopora Péron 1816 (see below for synonymy)W93
  H. corrugata Gray 1828O27 [incl. H. nodosaC64]
  H. cracherodii Leach 1817O27 [incl. H. glabra Schub. 1829C64, H. interrupta Valenciennes 1833C64]
    |--H. c. cracherodiiO27
    |--H. c. holzneri Hemphill 1907O27
    |--H. c. lusus Finlay 1927F27b (see below for synonymy)
    `--H. c. splendidula Williamson 1892O27
  H. crebrisculpta Sowerby 1914W93
  H. cretacea Lundgren 1894KC60
  H. discusGO06
  H. diversicolor Reeve 1846HJ08
  H. elegans Philippi 1874W93
  H. emmae Reeve 1846WG71
  H. ethologus (Iredale 1927)W93
  H. fatui Geiger 1999BC01
  H. fulgens Philippi 1845O27
    |--H. f. fulgensBC01
    `--H. f. guadelupensis Talmadge 1964BC01
  H. hannaiTH02
  H. hargravesi (Cox 1869)HJ08
  H. imperforata Gmelin 1791F27b
  H. kamtschatkana Jonas 1842T77
  H. lomaensis Anderson 1902KC60
  H. marmorata Linnaeus 1758L58
  H. pertusaT63
  H. planata Sowerby 1833BW09
  H. poutalesii Dall 1881S11
  H. pulcherrima Martyn 1784C64
  H. pustulata Reeve 1846BW09
    |--H. p. pustulataBD86
    `--H. p. cruenta Reeve 1846BD86
  H. roei Gray 1826 [incl. H. scabricostata Menke 1843, H. sulcosa Philippi 1845]W93
  H. rufescens Swainson 1822T77 [incl. H. californiana Valenciennes 1833C64]
  H. semiplicata Menke 1843 [incl. H. lauta Reeve 1846]W93
  H. sorenseniCG99
  H. spadicea Donovan 1808HJ08
  H. splendensC64
  H. squamata Reeve 1846WG71
  H. striata Linnaeus 1758L58
  H. walallensis Stearns 1891T77

Haliotis Linnaeus 1758KC60 [=Haleotis Binkhorst 1861KC60, Teinotis Adams & Adams 1854KC60, Tinotis Fischer 1885KC60; incl. Deridobranchus Ehrenberg 1831BR05; Deridobranchina, Deridobranchinae]

Haliotis conicopora Péron 1816 [incl. H. cunninghami Gray 1826, H. gigantea Menke 1843 non Péron 1816, H. granti Pritchard & Gatliff 1902, H. vixlirata Cotton 1943]W93

Haliotis cracherodii lusus Finlay 1927F27b [=H. cracherodii f. imperforata Dall 1919 nec H. imperforata Gmelin 1791 nec Philippi 1887F27b, O27]

Haliotis (Notohaliotis) ruber Leach 1814KC60, WG71 [=H. gigantea Péron 1816W93, H. (*N.) naevosa Martyn 1784 (non-binomial)KC60, H. tubifera Lamarck 1822W93]

Haliotis (Padollus) scalaris Leach 1814KC60 [=*Neohaliotis scalarisW93; incl. *Padollus rubicundus Montfort 1810 non H. rubicunda Röding 1798KC60, H. tricostalis Menke 1843W93]

Haliotis (*Sanhaliotis) varia Linnaeus 1758KC60 [incl. H. aliena Iredale 1929W93, H. concinna Reeve 1846W93, H. howensis Iredale 1929W93, H. pustulifera Pilsbry in Tryon 1890W93, H. semistriata Reeve 1846W93, H. viridis Reeve 1846W93]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BD86] Barash, A., & Z. Danin. 1986. Further additions to the knowledge of Indo-Pacific Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea (Lessepsian migrants). Spixiana 9 (2): 117–141.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[CG99] Carlton, J. T., J. B. Geller, M. L. Reaka-Kudla & E. A. Norse. 1999. Historical extinctions in the sea. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 30: 315–338.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[GO06] Giribet, G., A. Okusu, A. R. Lindgren, S. W. Huff, M. Schrödl & M. K. Nishiguchi. 2006. Evidence for a clade composed of molluscs with serially repeated structures: monoplacophorans are related to chitons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (20): 7723–7728.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[HJ08] Huisman, J. M., D. S. Jones, F. E. Wells & T. Burton. 2008. Introduced marine biota in Western Australian waters. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 1–44.

[KC60] Knight, J. B., L. R. Cox, A. M. Keen, R. L. Batten, E. L. Yochelson & R. Robertson. 1960. Gastropoda: systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I169–I331. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 3. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[RP07] Rousset, V., F. Pleijel, G. W. Rouse, C. Erséus & M. E. Siddall. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of annelids. Cladistics 23: 41–63.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[T63] Talmadge, R. R. 1963. Revision of a west African haliotid. Nautilus 77 (2): 55–58.

[T77] Talmadge, R. R. 1977. Notes on a California hybrid Haliotis (Gastropoda: Haliotidae). Veliger 20 (1): 37–38.

[TH02] Thompson, F. L., B. Hoste, K. Vandemuelebroecke, K. Engelbeen, R. Denys & J. Swings. 2002. Vibrio trachuri Iwamoto et al. 1995 is a junior synonym of Vibrio harveyi (Johnson and Shunk 1936) Baumann et al. 1981. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 52: 973–976.

[W93] Wilson, B. 1993. Australian Marine Shells vol. 1. Prosobranch Gastropods. Part One. Odyssey Publishing: Kallaroo (Western Australia).

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

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