Parrot’s feather Myriophyllum aquaticum, copyright Harry Rose.

Belongs within: Hamamelidaceae.

The Haloragaceae are a group of often aquatic plants that are most diverse in the Southern Hemisphere (Hickman 1993).

Characters (from Hickman 1993): Annuals, perennials or shrubs, generally monoecious, generally aquatic. Leaves cauline, opposite, alternate, or whorled; submersed blades with pinnate, thread-like divisions; aerial leaves simple, entire to divided. Inflorescence a panicle, raceme, or spike; flowers 1 or clustered, short-pedicelled to more or less sessile. Flowers generally unisexual, small, biradial; calyx tube short, fused to ovary, lobes 2-4; petals generally 2-4; stamens 4 or 8, filaments generally short; ovary inferior, chambers 1-4, styles 2-4, separate, stigmas generally plumose. Fruit fleshy or nut-like, dehiscent or not. Seeds generally 1 per chamber.

Haloragaceae [Haloragales]
    |–Laurembergia YY22
    |–Haloragodendron glandulosum G04b
    |–Hippuridella stacheana Edwards 1932 CBH93
    |–Proserpinaca palustris CBH93, M83
    |–Glischrocaryon RL05
    |    |–G. aureum RL05
    |    |    |–G. a. var. aureum G04b
    |    |    `–G. a. var. angustifolium G04b
    |    `–G. flavescens G04a
    |–Gonocarpus LK14
    |    |–G. aggregatus W91
    |    |–G. chinensis LK14
    |    |–G. cordiger GK00
    |    |–G. hexandrus GK00
    |    |    |–G. h. ssp. hexandrus GK00
    |    |    `–G. h. ssp. integrifolius GK00
    |    |–G. implexus LK14
    |    |–G. leptothecus LK14
    |    |–G. nodulosus G04a
    |    |–G. paniculatus GK00
    |    `–G. pithyoides GK00
    |–Myriophyllum Linnaeus 1753 A61
    |    |–M. alterniflorum C55
    |    |–M. aquaticum [incl. M. brasiliense] H93
    |    |–M. callitrichoides LK14
    |    |    |–M. c. ssp. callitrichoides LK14
    |    |    `–M. c. ssp. striatum LK14
    |    |–M. costatum LK14
    |    |–M. crispatum LK14
    |    |–M. dicoccum LK14
    |    |–M. drummondii GK00
    |    |–M. elatinoides Gaud. 1825 A61
    |    |–M. exalbescens B97
    |    |–M. filiforme LK14
    |    |–M. heterophyllum H63
    |    |–M. hippuroides H93
    |    |–M. limnophilum GK00
    |    |–M. pedunculatum Hook. f. 1847 A61
    |    |–M. propinquum Cunn. 1839 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |    |–M. robustum Hook. f. 1864 A61
    |    |–M. sibiricum H93
    |    |–M. spicatum H06
    |    |–M. tenellum V72
    |    |–M. tillaeoides GK00
    |    |–M. trachycarpum LK14
    |    |–M. verrucosum LK14
    |    |–M. verticillatum D03
    |    `–M. votschii Schindler 1905 A61
    `–Haloragis Forster & Forster 1776 A61
         |  i. s.: H. aspera NDA05
         |         H. asperrima A61
         |         H. brownii GK00
         |         H. depressa (Cunn.) Walp. 1843 (see below for synonymy) A61
         |           |–H. d. var. depressa C06
         |           `–H. d. var. serpyllifolia [=Gonicarpus serpyllifolius; incl. G. vernicosus] C06
         |         H. exalata A61
         |         H. gossei KM08
         |         H. incana (Cunn.) Walp. 1843 (see below for synonymy) A61
         |         H. laevis A61
         |         H. masafuerana Skottsberg 1922 A61
         |         H. masatierrana Skottsberg 1922 A61
         |         H. micrantha (Thunb.) Br. ex Siebold & Zucc. 1843 (see below for synonymy) A61
         |         H. procumbens Cheesem. 1910 (see below for synonymy) A61
         |         H. salsoloides H87
         |         H. serra NDA05
         |         H. tetragyna A61 [=Goniocarpus tetragynus C06]
         |         H. trigonocarpa A61
         `–H. subsect. Cercodia A61
              |–H. cartilaginea Cheesem. 1897 [=H. alata var. cartilaginea Cheesem. 1906] A61
              |–H. colensoi Skottsberg 1922 A61
              `–H. erecta (Banks ex Murr.) Eichl. 1878 (see below for synonymy) A61

Haloragis depressa (Cunn.) Walp. 1843 [=Goniocarpus depressus Cunn. 1839; incl. H. aggregata Buchan. 1872, H. depressa var. aggregata (Buchan.) Kirk 1899, H. bibracteolata Col. 1890, H. uniflora var. bibracteolata (Col.) Schindler 1905, H. spicata Petrie 1887, H. depressa var. spicata (Petrie) Schindler 1905, H. uniflora Kirk 1877, H. depressa var. uniflora (Kirk) Cheesem. 1910] A61

Haloragis erecta (Banks ex Murr.) Eichl. 1878 [=Cercodia erecta Banks ex Murr. 1781; incl. H. alata Jacquin 1781, C. alternifolia Cunn. 1839, H. caprae Chiovenda & Vaccari 1933] A61

Haloragis incana (Cunn.) Walp. 1843 [=Cercodia incana Cunn. 1839, H. tetragyna var. incana Kirk 1899] A61

Haloragis micrantha (Thunb.) Br. ex Siebold & Zucc. 1843 [=Gonocarpus micranthus Thunb. 1783; incl. G. citriodorus Cunn. 18739, Haloragis minima Colenso 1886, H. tenella Brong. 1829 (preoc.)] A61

Haloragis procumbens Cheesem. 1910 [incl. H. tetragyna var. diffusa Hook. f. 1852, H. diffusa (Hook. f.) Ckn. 1909 non Diels 1904] A61

Myriophyllum propinquum Cunn. 1839 [=M. propinquum var. tenuifolium Schindler 1905; incl. M. propinquum var. genuinum Schindler 1905, M. intermedium Kirk 1899 (preoc.), M. variaefolium Hook. f. 1840] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[B97] Brown, K. M. 1997. Temporal and spatial patterns of abundance in the gastropod assemblage of a macrophyte bed. American Malacological Bulletin 14 (1): 27–33.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[G04a] Gibson, N. 2004a. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35–47.

[G04b] Gibson, N. 2004b. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49–62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H87] Haviland, E. 1887. Flowering seasons of Australian plants. No. I—List of plants indigenous in the neighbourhood of Sydney, flowering during July. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1049–1051.

[H63] Heard, W. H. 1963. Reproductive features of Valvata. Nautilus 77 (2): 64–68.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201–222.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11–19.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M83] Myers, R. L. 1983. Site susceptibility to invasion by the exotic tree Melaleuca quinquenervia in southern Florida. Journal of Applied Ecology 20: 645–658.

[NDA05] Nickrent, D. L., J. P. Der & F. E. Anderson. 2005. Discovery of the photosynthetic relatives of the “Maltese mushroom” Cynomorium. BMC Evolutionary Biology 5: 38.

[RL05] Rafferty, C., & B. B. Lamont. 2005. Selective feeding by macropods on vegetation regenerating following fire. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 155–165.

[V72] Voss, E. G. 1972. Michigan Flora. Part I. Gymnosperms and Monocots. Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

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