Hapalidiaceae

Coralline curst dominated by Lithothamnion glaciale with anemones Metridium senile, copyright Derek Keats.

Belongs within: Corallinales.

The Hapalidiaceae are coralline red algae with tetrasporangia/bisporangia borne in conceptacles, producing apical plugs, developing beneath multiporate plates but not borne individually within calcified sporangial compartments, and producing zonately arranged spores (Harvey et al. 2003).

<==Hapalidiaceae
    |--Choreonema [Choreonematoideae]HB03
    |    `--C. thureti (Born) Schmitz 1889L27
    |--AustrolithoideaeHB03
    |    |--AustrolithonHB03
    |    `--BoreolithonHB03
    `--Melobesioideae [Nulliporeae]HB03
         |  i. s.: ExilicrustaHB03
         |         Kvaleya epilaeveHB03, AA03
         |         Nullipora polymorpha [=Millepora polymorpha]G20
         |         Melobesia Lamouroux 1812H15 [incl. Hapalidium Kützing 1843HB03]
         |           |--*M. membranacea [incl. *Hapalidium roseum Kützing 1843]HB03
         |           |--M. amplexifrons Harvey 1847 [=Lithophyllum amplexifrons]L27
         |           |--M. calcareaG64
         |           |--M. caulerpae Fosl. 1906 [=Heteroderma caulerpae]L27
         |           |--‘Hapalidium’ confervicola [incl. Lithocystis allmanni]G64
         |           |--M. explanata Fosl. 1908 [=Pliostroma explanata]L27
         |           |--M. fasciculataG64
         |           |--M. lejolisiiPP64
         |           |--M. leptura Fosl. 1906L27
         |           |--M. lichenoidesG64
         |           |--M. marginata Setchell & Foslie in Foslie 1902 [=Lithothamnium marginatum]S57
         |           |--M. mediocris (Foslie) Setchell & Mason 1943 (see below for synonymy)S57
         |           |--M. membranaceaG64
         |           |--M. novae-zelandiaeL27
         |           |--M. polymorphaG64
         |           `--M. verrucosaR26
         |--+--Mastophoropsis canaliculataB99
         |  |--Synarthrophyton patenaB99
         |  |--ClathromorphumB99
         |  |    |--C. compactumHB03
         |  |    `--C. parcumHB03
         |  |--MesophyllumB99
         |  |    |--M. engelhartiiHB03
         |  |    |--M. erubescensHB03
         |  |    `--M. lichenoidesPP64
         |  `--Leptophytum Adey 1966B99, AA03
         |       |--*L. laeve (Strömfelt) Adey 1966 [=Lithophyllum laeve Strömfelt 1886 (nom. cons.) non Kützing 1847]AA03
         |       |--L. acervatumHB03
         |       |--L. feroxHB03
         |       `--L. foecundum (Kjellman) Adey 1966AA03
         |--PhymatolithonB99
         |    |--P. laevigatumHB03
         |    `--P. lenormandiiHB03
         `--Lithothamnion Heydrich 1897B99, HL09
              |--L. agariciforme [=Melobesia agariciformis Areschoug 1852]L27
              |--L. asperulum Fosl. 1907L27
              |--L. aucklandicum Fosl. 1907L27
              |--L. calcareum (Ell. & Solander) Aresch 1851L27
              |--L. californicum Foslie 1900S57
              |--L. chathamense Fosl. 1906L27
              |--L. cystocarpideum Fosl. 1906L27
              |--L. fruticulosumPP64
              |--L. geppii Lemoine 1917L27
              |--L. glacialeHB03
              |--L. haptericolum Fosl. 1906L27
              |--L. incisum Fosl. 1909L27
              |--L. insigne Fosl. 1906L27
              |--L. lenormandiPP64
              |--L. lophiformeHB03
              |--L. luxurumA04
              |--L. muricatum (Foslie) DeToni 1924 [=Lithophyllum muricatum]S57
              |--L. pacificum Foslie 1906S57
              |--L. patena (Harvey) Heydr. 1901 [=Melobesia patena Harvey 1847]L27
              |--L. philippiiPP64
              |--L. phymatodeum Foslie 1902S57
              |--L. proliferum Foslie 1904HL09
              |--L. ramosissimumA04
              |--L. solutumPP64
              |--L. sonderiPP64
              |--L. thophiformeB99
              `--L. valensPP64

Melobesia mediocris (Foslie) Setchell & Mason 1943 [=Lithothamnium mediocre, M. zostericolum f. mediocris]S57

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A04] Aguirre, J. 2004. Plagiarism in palaeontology. A new threat within the scientific community. Revista Española de Micropaleontologia 36 (2): 349–352.

[AA03] Athanasiadis, A., & W. H. Adey. 2003. (1577) Proposal to conserve the name Lithophyllum laeve Strömfelt against L. laeve Kützing (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) with a conserved type. Taxon 52: 342–350.

[B99] Bailey, J. C. 1999. Phylogenetic positions of Lithophyllum incrustans and Titanoderma pustulatum (Corallinaceae, Rhodophyta) based on 18S rRNA gene sequence analyses, with a revised classification of the Lithophylloideae. Phycologia 38 (3): 208–216.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[G64] Gray, J. E. 1864. Handbook of British Water-weeds or Algae. R. Hardwicke: London.

[H15] Harmer, S. F. 1915. The Polyzoa of the Siboga Expedition—Part I. Entoprocta, Ctenostomata and Cyclostomata. E. J. Brill: Leyden.

[HB03] Harvey, A. S., S. T. Broadwater, W. J. Woelkerling & P. J. Mitrovski. 2003. Choreonema (Coralllinales, Rhodophyta): 18S rDNA phylogeny and resurrection of the Hapalidiaceae for the subfamilies Choreonematoideae, Austrolithoideae, and Melobesioideae. Journal of Phycology 39: 988–998.

[HL09] Huisman, J. M., F. Leliaert, H. Veerbruggen & R. A. Townsend. 2009. Marine benthic plants of Western Australia’s shelf-edge atolls. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 50–87.

[L27] Laing, R. M. 1927. A reference list of New Zealand marine algae. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 126–185.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[S57] Scagel, R. F. 1957. An annotated list of the marine algae of British Columbia and northern Washington (including keys to genera). National Museum of Canada Bulletin 150: 1–289.

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