Colony of Phaeocystis, copyright Peter Countway.

Belongs within: Diaphoretickes.
Contains: Coccolithophyceae.

The Haptophyta are a group of aquatic flagellates, many of which are photosynthetic. Most members of this group have a covering of scales that may or may not be mineralised.

    |--Centrohelida [Centrohelea, Centroheliozoa, Centroplasthelida, Chalarothoraca, Heliozoa]C-S10
    |    |  i. s.: Spiculophrys [Spiculophryidae]AB19
    |    |--PanacanthocystidaAB19
    |    |    |--Yogsothoth [Yogsothothidae]AB19
    |    |    |    `--Y. knorrusAB19
    |    |    `--AcanthocystidaAB19
    |    |         |--Marophrys [Marophryidae]AB19
    |    |         |    `--M. marinaAB19
    |    |         `--ChalarothoracinaAB19
    |    |              |--Raphidocystis [Raphidocystidae]AB19
    |    |              `--Acanthocystis [Acanthocystidae]AB19
    |    |                   |--A. aculeataSX97
    |    |                   |--A. brevirrhisSX97
    |    |                   |--A. italica Gruber 1884G84
    |    |                   |--A. nichollsiAB19
    |    |                   |--A. penardiMS98
    |    |                   |--A. saphonovi Mikryukov 1995TS02
    |    |                   `--A. turfaceaM00
    |    `--PterocystidaAB19
    |         |--RaphidistaAB19
    |         |    |--Choanocystis [Choanocystidae]AB19
    |         |    |    |--C. aculeataM00
    |         |    |    `--C. curvataAB19
    |         |    `--RaphidiophryidaeAB19
    |         |         |--ParasphaerastrumAS12
    |         |         |--Polyplacocystis contractilisAS12, C-SCL15
    |         |         `--RaphidiophrysNB04
    |         |              |--R. ambigua Penard 1904C-SC03
    |         |              |--R. arenosa Gruber 1884G84
    |         |              |--R. contractilisOC09
    |         |              |--R. elegans Hertwig & Lesser 1874W86
    |         |              |--R. heterophryoideaAB19
    |         |              `--R. pallidaSX97
    |         `--PteristaAB19
    |              |--Oxnerella [Oxnerellidae]AB19
    |              |    `--O. maritima (Dobell 1917)AS12, C-SC03
    |              |--HeterophryidaeAB19
    |              |    |--Sphaerastrum fockiiOC09
    |              |    `--HeterophrysNB04
    |              |         |--H. glabrescensLB90
    |              |         `--H. marinaNB04
    |              `--PterocystidaeAB19
    |                   |--Raineriophrys [incl. Echinocystis (preoc.)]AB19
    |                   |--*Chlamydaster sterni Rainer 1968NB04, AB19, C-SC03
    |                   |--PseudoraphidiophrysAS12
    |                   |--PseudoraphidocystisAS12
    |                   `--Pterocystis Lohmann 1904AB19, FT93
    |                        |--P. devonicaAB19
    |                        |--P. erinaceoidesNB04
    |                        `--P. tropicaOC09
    `--Haptophytina [Haptomonada, Haptophyta, Prymnesiida, Prymnesiophyta]LE18
            `--Pavlovales [Pavlovophyceae, Pavlovophycidae]AB19
                 |    |--D. lutheriC-SCL15
                 |    `--D. vlkianumC-SC06
                 `--Pavlova [Pavlovaceae]C-SC06
                      |--P. gyransMO08
                      |--P. lutheriMO08 [=Monochrysis lutheriTP87]
                      `--P. salinaC-SA96

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AB19] Adl, S. M., D. Bass, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov, S. Agatha, C. Berney, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, P. Cárdenas, I. Čepička, L. Chistyakova, J. del Campo, M. Dunthorn, B. Edvardsen, Y. Eglit, L. Guillou, V. Hampl, A. A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, T. Y. James, A. Karnkowska, S. Karpov, E. Kim, M. Kolisko, A. Kudryavtsev, D. J. G. Lahr, E. Lara, L. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, D. G. Mann, R. Massana, E. A. D. Mitchell, C. Morrow, J. S. Park, J. W. Pawlowski, M. J. Powell, D. J. Richter, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, S. Shimano, F. W. Spiegel, G. Torruella, N. Youssef, V. Zlatogursky & Q. Zhang. 2019. Revisions to the classification, nomenclature, and diversity of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 66: 4–119.

[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–493.

[C-S10] Cavalier-Smith, T. 2010. Kingdoms Protozoa and Chromista and the eozoan root of the eukaryotic tree. Biology Letters 6 (3): 342–345.

[C-SA96] Cavalier-Smith, T., M. T. E. P. Allsopp, M. M. Haueber, G. Goethe, E. E. Chao, J. A. Couch & U.-G. Maier. 1996. Chromobiote phylogeny: the enigmatic alga Reticulosphaera japonensis is an aberrant haptophyte, not a heterokont. European Journal of Phycology 31: 255–263.

[C-SC03] Cavalier-Smith, T., & E. E.-Y. Chao. 2003. Molecular phylogeny of centrohelid heliozoa, a novel lineage of bikont eukaryotes that arose by ciliary loss. Journal of Molecular Evolution 56: 387–396.

[C-SC06] Cavalier-Smith, T., & E. E.-Y. Chao. 2006. Phylogeny and megasystematics of phagotrophic heterokonts (kingdom Chromista). Journal of Molecular Evolution 62: 388–420.

[C-SCL15] Cavalier-Smith, T., E. E. Chao & R. Lewis. 2015. Multiple origins of Heliozoa from flagellate ancestors: new cryptist subphylum Corbihelia, superclass Corbistoma, and monophyly of Haptista, Cryptista, Hacrobia and Chromista. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 93: 331–362.

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i–viii, 1–351.

[G84] Gruber, A. 1884. Die Protozoen des Hafens von Genua. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlichen Leopoldinisch-Carolinischen Deutschen Akademie der Naturforscher [Nova Acta Academiae Caesareae Leopoldino-Carolinae Germanicae Naturae Curiosorum] 46 (4): 473–539, pls 7–11.

[LE18] Lax, G., Y. Eglit, L. Eme, E. M. Bertrand, A. J. Roger & A. G. B. Simpson. 2018. Hemimastigophora is a novel supra-kingdom-level lineage of eukaryotes. Nature 564: 410–414.

[LB90] Lousier, J. D., & S. S. Bamforth. 1990. Soil protozoa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 97-136. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[MS98] Margulis, L., & K. V. Schwartz. 1998. Five Kingdoms: An Illustrated Guide to the Phyla of Life on Earth 3rd ed. W. H. Freeman and Company: New York.

[M00] Mikrjukov, K. A. 2000. Taxonomy and phylogeny of Heliozoa: should this taxon exist in modern classification of Protista? Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 79 (8): 883–897 (translated: Entomological Review 80 (Suppl. 1): S35–S50).

[MO08] Moore, R. B., M. Oborník, J. Janouškovec, T. Chrudimský, M. Vancová, D. H. Green, S. W. Wright, N. W. Davies, C. J. S. Bolch, K. Heimann, J. Šlapeta, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, J. M. Logsdon, Jr. & D. A. Carter. 2008. A photosynthetic alveolate closely related to apicomplexan parasites. Nature 451: 959–963.

[NB04] Nikolaev, S. I., C. Berney, J. F. Fahrni, I. Bolivar, S. Polet, A. P. Mylnikov, V. V. Aleshin, N. B. Petrov & J. Pawlowski. 2004. The twilight of Heliozoa and rise of Rhizaria, an emerging supergroup of amoeboid eukaryotes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 101 (21): 8066–8071.

[OC09] Okamoto, N., C. Chantangsi, A. Horák, B. S. Leander & P. J. Keeling. 2009. Molecular phylogeny and description of the novel katablepharid Roombia truncata gen. et sp. nov., and establishment of the Hacrobia taxon nov. PLoS One 4 (9): e7080.

[SX97] Song B. & Xie P. 1997. Preliminary studies on the community structure of the planktonic protozoa from the outlet of Lake Dongting. Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica 21 (Suppl.): 60–68.

[TP87] Taylor, F. J. R., & U. Pollingher. 1987. Ecology of dinoflagellates. In: Taylor, F. J. R. (ed.) The Biology of Dinoflagellates pp. 398–529. Blackwell Scientific.

[TS02] Tsetlin, A. B., & M. V. Safonov. 2002. Intersticial’nye polihety (Annelida) Kandalakšskogo zaliva Belogo Morâ. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 81 (8): 899–908.

[W86] Whitelegge, T. 1886. List of the freshwater Rhizopoda of N. S. Wales. Part I. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 497–504.

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