Harpalus affinis, copyright Trevor & Dilys Pendleton.

Belongs within: Harpalitae.

Harpalus is a diverse genus of carabid beetles with antennae that are setose from the third segment onwards, and two ventral rows of scale-like setae on the fore tarsi of males. They are native to Eurasia and North America though some species have also been introduced outside this range. Harpalus is divided between a large number of subgenera and other supra-specific groups, with members of the type subgenus being metallic green or aeneous in coloration. Opadius and Glanodes are characterised by a cordate pronotum, together with short rows of large punctures towards the apex of the elytra in intervals 3, 5, and 7 (Ball & Bousquet 2001).

Harpalus Latreille 1802LM87
|--H. (Harpalus) [incl. Epiharpalus Reitter 1900]BB01
| |--H. (H.) affinis (Schrank 1781)E04, LM87 [=Carabus affinisLM87; incl. C. proteus Paykull 1790LM87, *Harpalus proteusLM87]
| |--H. (H.) aeneusG20
| `--H. (H.) rubripes (De Geer 1774)BB01
|--H. atrichatus Hatch 1949BB01
|--H. opacipennis (Haldeman 1843)BB01
|--H. cautus groupBB01
| |--H. cautusBB01
| |--H. halli Noonan 1991BB01
| |--H. innocuusBB01
| `--H. vittatus Gebler 1833BB01
| |--H. v. vittatusBB01
| `--H. v. alaskensis Lindroth 1968BB01
|--H. herbivagus groupBB01
| |--H. herbivagusBB01
| |--H. solitaris Dejean 1829BB01
| `--H. somnulentus Dejean 1829 [incl. H. rewolinskii Noonan 1991]BB01
|--H. nigritarsis groupBB01
| |--H. megacephalus LeConte 1848BB01
| `--H. nigritarsis Sahlberg 1827BB01
|--H. obnixus groupBB01
| |--H. obnixus Casey 1924BB01
| `--H. plenalis Casey 1914BB01
|--H. (Euharpalops Casey 1914) (see below for synonymy)BB01
| |--H. (E.) fraternusBB01
| |--H. (E.) fulvilabrisBB01
| |--H. (E.) laticepsBB01
| |--H. (E.) spadiceusBB01
| |--H. (E.) ventralisBB01
| `--H. (E.) viduusBB01
|--H. (Glanodes Casey 1914)BB01
|--H. (Harpalobius Reitter 1900) [incl. Harpalellus Lindroth 1968]BB01
| `--H. (H.) fuscicalpis Sturm 1818 [incl. Harpalus basilaris Kirby 1837, *Harpalellus basilaris]BB01
|--H. (Harpalobrachys Tschitschérine 1898)BB01
| `--H. (H.) leiroides Motschulsky 1844BB01
|--H. (Harpalomerus Casey 1914)BB01
| |--H. (H.) amputatus Say 1830BB01
| `--H. (H.) obtusus (Gebler 1833)BB01
|--H. (Megapangus Casey 1914)BB01
| |--H. (M.) caliginosus (Fabricius 1775)BB01
| `--H. (M.) katiae Battoni 1985BB01
|--H. (Melops) terricolaG20 [=Carabus terricolaL02]
|--H. (Opadius Casey 1914) [incl. Cordoharpalus Hatch 1949]BB01
| |--H. (O.) cordifer Notman 1919BB01
| `--H. (O.) tadorcus Ball 1972BB01
|--H. (Pelon) spinipesG20
|--H. (Pharalus Casey 1914)BB01
| | i. s.: H. (P.) cyrtonotoides Notman 1919BB01
| |--H. (P.) desertus LeConte 1859BB01
| `--+--H. (P.) gravis LeConte 1858BB01
| `--H. (P.) indianus Csiki 1932BB01
|--H. (Platysma) nigritusG20
|--H. (Plectralidus Casey 1914)BB01
| |--H. (P.) eraticus Say 1823BB01
| `--H. (P.) retractus LeConte 1863BB01
`--H. (Pseudoophonus Motschulsky 1844) [=Pseudophonus (l. c.)]BB01
|--H. (P.) pensylvanicusBB01
|--H. (P.) ruficornis (Fabricius 1775) [=Carabus ruficornis]LM87
`--H. (P.) rufipes (De Geer 1774)BB01 [=Cucujus rufipesL02, H. (Siagona) rufipesG20]

Harpalus incertae sedis:
H. amariformisC01
H. ambiguus [=Carabus ambiguus]L02
H. caerulescens (Linnaeus 1758)L02, L58 [=Carabus caerulescensL02]
H. calceatusR13
H. calydonius [=Carabus calydonius]L02
H. cisteloides [=Carabus cisteloides]L02
H. distinguendusC01
H. fulvicornis (Thunberg 1806) [=Carabus fulvicornis]LM87
H. gagates [=Scarites gagates]L02
H. germanus (Linnaeus 1758)L02, L58 [=Carabus germanusL02]
H. gory Gory 1833LM87
H. goryi Boisduval 1835LM87
H. ignobilis Boheman 1858LM87
H. interruptus [=Carabus interruptus]L02
H. leucopthalmus [=Carabus leucopthalmus]L02
H. marginepunctatusB35
H. motschulskyiC01
H. piceus [=Scarites piceus]L02
H. picipennisC01
H. pubescensR13
H. puncticepsE04
H. rufibarbisE04
H. serripesC01
H. sexpunctatus (Linnaeus 1758)L02, L58 [=Carabus sexpunctatusL02]
H. spiniger [=Carabus spiniger]L02
H. striatus [=Carabus striatus]L02
H. tardus (Panzer 1796)VPB11
H. vestitus [=Carabus vestitus]L02
H. vulgaris (Linnaeus 1758)L02, L58 [=Carabus vulgarisL02]

Harpalus (Euharpalops Casey 1914) [=Euharpalus (l. c.); incl. Amblystus Hatch 1953 non Motschulsky 1864, Haploharpalus Schauberger 1926, Lasioharpalus Hatch 1953 non Reitter 1900]BB01

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BB01] Ball, G. E., & Y. Bousquet. 2001. Carabidae Latreille, 1810. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr & M. C. Thomas (eds) American Beetles vol. 1. Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga, Polyphaga: Staphyliniformia pp. 32–132. CRC Press: Boca Raton.

[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d’Urville. Faune entomologique de l’océan Pacifique, avec l’illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[E04] Emberson, R. M. 2004. A European ground beetle, Harpalus tardus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Carabidae), in Canterbury, and the predisposition of European carabids to establish in exotic temperate locations. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 39–42.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[LM87] Lawrence, J. F., B. P. Moore, J. E. Pyke & T. A. Weir. 1987. Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 4. Coleoptera: Archostemata, Myxophaga and Adephaga. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[VPB11] Varet, M., J. Pétillon & F. Burel. 2011. Comparative responses of spider and carabid beetle assemblages along an urban-rural boundary gradient. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 236–243.


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