Black-eyed Susan Rudbeckia hirta, copyright Matt Lavin.

Belongs within: Asteroideae.
Contains: Helianthus, Verbesininae, Ambrosiinae.

The Heliantheae are a group of composite-flowered plants distinguished by their scaled receptacles and (usually) stiff pappuses. Molecular studies indicate the presence of two major clades within the Heliantheae; interestingly, the morphologically similar genera Montanoa and Rojasianthe, sharing such characters as chromosome number, opposite phyllotaxy, accrescent pales, blackish disc corollas and neutral ray flowers with white corollas, are each placed basally on oppposite clades (Panero & Funk 2002). Montanoa is a genus of trees, shrubs and vines found in South and Central America. Other members of the Heliantheae include the coneflowers of the genus Rudbeckia, native to North America with some species being cultivated for their showy flower with contrasting golden rays and black disc. Zinnia species are native to dry regions of North and South America and have solitary, often colourful, long-stemmed flowers. The Ecliptinae are found in the Old World and North America, particularly in arid habitats, and have radiate or discoid heads and usually persistent pappi, most commonly of scales.

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965): Receptacle with chaffy scales; involucral bracts without scarious margins; heads mostly heterogamous-radiate; pappus of scales, awns or stiff plumose bristles, rarely absent; style-branches flattish, not truncate; leaves often opposite.

    |  |    |--M. bipinnatifidaZ02
    |  |    |--M. hibiscifoliaH06
    |  |    |--M. liebmanniiPF02
    |  |    `--M. pteropodaPF02
    |  `--EcliptinaePF02
    |       |--SalmeaPF02
    |       |--Melanthera niverN10, G38
    |       |--LasianthaeaN10
    |       `--EcliptaBR65
    |            |--E. erectaC55
    |            |--E. platyglossaBR65
    |            `--E. prostrata [incl. E. alba]H93
    `--+--Rojasianthe Standley & Steyermark 1940 [Rojasianthinae]PF02
       `--+--ZaluzaniaYY22 [ZaluzaniinaePF02]
          |--ZinniaM99 [ZinniinaePF02]
          |    |--Z. acerosaBT87
          |    |--Z. elegansM99
          |    |--Z. grandifloraC01
          |    |--Z. multifloraT-W89
          |    `--Z. pumilaBTA75
          `--RudbeckiaH93 [RudbeckiinaePF02]
               |--R. californicaH93
               |    |--R. c. var. californicaH93
               |    |--R. c. var. glaucaH93
               |    `--R. c. var. intermediaH93
               |--R. columnarisJ23
               |--R. hirtaH93
               |    |--R. h. var. hirtaH93
               |    `--R. h. var. pulcherrimaH93
               |--R. laciniataS72
               |--R. occidentalisH93
               `--R. purpureaJ23
Heliantheae incertae sedis:
    |--S. grandifloraT-W89
    `--S. paniculataBB07
  Galinsoga [Galinsoginae]BR65
    |--G. parvifloraBR65
    `--G. quadriradiataH93
  Aspilia eeniiN10, CV06
    |--H. hispida [incl. Viguiera ciliata]H93
    `--H. multifloraH93
         |--H. m. var. multifloraH93
         `--H. m. var. nevadensis [=Viguiera multiflora var. nevadensis]H93
  Synedrella nodifloraN10
  Borrichia frutescensN10
  Espeletia hartwegianaN10, R96
    |--E. h. var. hartwegianaR96
    `--E. h. var. centroandinaR96
  Guizotia abyssinicaM99
  Lagascea angustifoliaS06, BTA75
  Acanthospermum hispidumS06, LK14
    |--P. argentatumKSM06
    |--P. hysterophorusPP07
    `--P. incanumBT72
  Sanvitalia abertiiS06, H93
  Enhydra fluctuansS06, KLG05
  Flourensia cernuaS06, MB86
    |--E. actoni [=E. virginensis ssp. actoni]H93
    |--E. californicaH93
    |--E. farinosa [incl. E. farinosa var. phenicodonta]H93
    |--E. frutescensH93
    `--E. virginensisH93
  Thelesperma megapotamicumS06, H93

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[BT72] Baker, E. W., & D. M. Tuttle. 1972. New species and further notes on the Tetranychoidea mostly from the southwestern United States (Acarina: Tetranychidae and Tenuipalpidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 116: 1–37.

[BT87] Baker, E. W., & D. M. Tuttle. 1987. The false spider mites of Mexico (Tenuipalpidae: Acari). United States Department of Agriculture, Technical Bulletin 1706: 1–237.

[BTA75] Baker, E. W., D. M. Tuttle & M. J. Abbatiello. 1975. The false spider mites of northwestern and north central Mexico (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 194: 1–23.

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[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C01] Cockerell, T. D. A. 1901. Contributions from the New Mexico Biological Station.—X. Observations on bees collected at Las Vegas, New Mexico, and in the adjacent mountains. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 125–131.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[G38] Gahan, A. B. 1938. Notes on some genera and species of Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (8): 209–227.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201–222.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[J23] James, E. 1823. Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, performed in the years 1819 and ’20, by order of the Hon. J. C. Calhoun, sec’y of war: under the command of Major Stephen H. Long. From the notes of Major Long, Mr. T. Say, and other gentlemen of the exploring party vol. 1. H. C. Carey & I. Lea: Philadelphia.

[KSM06] King, R. C., W. D. Stansfield & P. K. Mulligan. 2006. A Dictionary of Genetics 7th ed. Oxford University Press.

[KLG05] Kumar, S., J. Lal & P. Gupta. 2005. Ricciocarpos Corda (Hepaticae) from Maldah district, West Bengal: a new generic record for Gangetic Plain. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47: 131–132.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[MB86] Matson, J. O., & R. H. Baker. 1986. Mammals of Zacatecas. Special Publications, Museum of Texas Tech University 24: 1–88.

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[N10] Norrbom, A. L. 2010. Tephritidae (fruit flies, moscas de frutas). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 909–954. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P., & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 15–78.

[PF02] Panero, J. L., & V. A. Funk. 2002. Toward a phylogenetic subfamilial classification for the Compositae (Asteraceae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 115 (4): 909–922.

[R96] Righi, G. 1996. Colombian earthworms. Studies on Tropical Andean Ecosystems 4: 485–607.

[S72] Shields, O. 1972. Flower visitation records for butterflies (Lepidoptera). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48 (3): 189–203.

[S06] Stuckert, T. 1906. Distribución geográfica de la flora Argentina. Géneros de la familia de las compuestas. Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires, serie 3, 6: 303–309.

[T-W89] Tenison-Woods, J. E. 1889. On the vegetation of Malaysia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (1): 9–106, pls 1–9.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

[Z02] Zhang, Z.-Q. 2002. Taxonomy of Tetranychus ludeni (Acari: Tetranychidae) in New Zealand and its ecology on Sechium edule. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 27–34.

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